Wednesday, August 26, 2015

On Building Vanguard Party Organization--Thoughts on "Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional) 推进领导干部能上能下若干规定(试行)"

(Pix © Larry Catá Backer 2015)

In an earlier post (Evolving Leninism in the Chinese Communist Party?: Reforming Mechanisms for Intra-Party Discipline) I considered the evolution of intra-Party disciplinary mechanisms in China. The changes are interesting not merely from the technocratic perspective (that is do they make good governance sense?) but also from the theoretical perspective (are the changes consistent with and advance the development of Marxist Leninist thought and practice consistent with Chinese characteristics?).

These changes are part of a comprehensive reform plan laid out at the third plenary session of the 18th CCP Central Committee in 2013 which reflected earlier actions of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. Among the most important of these organizational developments has been the  Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional) 推进领导干部能上能下若干规定(试行).  CHINESE ORIGINAL HERE. These were unveiled and to be made effective July 31, 2015. 

The policy underlying these provisions are old--they can be traced back to Deng Xiaoping's statement, "Questions Concerning Cadres of the Party in Power," The Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping Vol. I (Nov.29, 1962).  This post includes a translation of Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional) 推进领导干部能上能下若干规定(试行)and commentary.

One of the most interesting aspects of the Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional) 推进领导干部能上能下若干规定(试行) was the way in which it splashed onto the scene at the end of July and then, almost as quickly disappeared from notice. There might have been a sense that these provisions represented some critical additional step in the a sign of CCP instability, or of an imminent rectification campaign reorganization of the CCP that might have reflected current factional battles within the highest reaches of the CCP.  Some of these insights might have been connected to the nature of the provisions--they are, in their own way, disruptive of the societal norms that have come to reflect practice within the CCP, especially at its lower and middle rungs. Yet, within the context of the recent efforts to strengthen CCP discipline, the provisions appear to be a natural development of the move both to control corruption and to significantly change the working style of CCP cadres. These are no small matters in a state in which the CCP serves a vanguard role.  That vanguard role produces some sometimes substantial obligations on both Party and cadres.  These cannot be ignored if the CCP is to retain its authority ion the process of socialist modernization.

The text of this Regulation and its translation can be found at and

Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional)


Article 1 These regulations are formulated on the basis of the provisions of the "Party and Government Leading Cadre Selection and Appointment Work Regulations" and other such intra-Party regulations as well as the provisions of the "Public Servant Law of the People's Republic of China" and other such laws, so as to implement the Party Center's requirements for comprehensive and strict Party governance, to strictly enforce the Party's political discipline and political norms, to improve structures and systems for strict management of cadre ranks, to create selection and appointment mechanisms allowing for promotion and demotion, and to build a high-quality cadre corps with firm ideals and convictions, which serve the people, are assiduous and pragmatic, who dare to take on burdens, are upright, just and clean in governance.

第一条 为贯彻党中央关于全面从治党要求,明党的政治律和政治,完善从管理干部伍制度体系,形成能上能下的人用人机制,信念定、民服、勤政务实、敢于担当、清正廉的高素干部,根据《党政领导干部拔任用工作条例》等党内法和《中人民共和国公务员法》等有关法律法,制定本定。

Article 2 "Advancing Capacity to Promote and Demote Leading Cadres" as used in these Provisions, emphasizes resolving issues in demoting cadres. Party management of the Party, and strict Party governance must be adhered too; adhering to seeking truth from facts and fairness and uprightness; adhering to having people in appropriate posts, and making full use of their talents; adhering to compliance with laws and regulations, proactiveness and reliability; striving to resolve problems such as those of crooked cadres, incapable cadres and disorderly cadre; urging leading cadres to conscientiously fulfill the demands of the "three stricts and the three earnests"(); and promoting the formation of an employment orientation and a political environment where the capable are promoted, the mediocre are demoted, and the inferior are discarded.

第二条 本定所称推进领导干部能上能下,重点是解决干部能下问题。必须坚持党要管党、从治党,事求是、公道正派,持人相适、人尽其才,持依法依妥,着力解决官不正、官不官乱问题,促使领导干部自践行“三”要求,推形成能者上、庸者下、劣者汰的用人向和从政境。

Article 3: These provisions apply to leading cadres of relevant central and national departments, and local party and government organs at the county level or higher.
第三条 本定适用于中央和国家机关各部、地方县级以上党政机关的领导干部。
These provisions are applied by reference to village (township or street) Party and Government leading cadres.


These Provisions principally regulate organizational adjustments involving leading cadres. Where a violation of law or discipline is involved, it is handled in accordance with the Party's disciplinary rules and relevant laws and regulations.

Article 4 To advance the capacity for promotion and demotion of leading cadres, provisions such as those concerning the cadre appointment and removal (retirement) system and provisions concerning leaving one's office upon completion of a term of office should be strictly enforced, and the extent of efforts on pursuing accountability and adjusting cadres unfit to serve in their post should also be increased.
第四条 推进领导干部能上能下,既要严格执行干部到龄免职(退休)、任期届满离任等制度规定,又要加大问责追究、调整不适宜担任现职干部等的工作力度。

Article 5 Strictly enforce the cadre retirement system; where cadres reach the age limit for their post or the age or retirement, their dismissal (retirement) formalities shall be handled in accordance with statutory procedures. Where, due to the demands of work, termination (retirement) is postponed, the Party committee (Party group) shall, in accordance with their cadre management powers, raise an opinion, and report to the Party organization at the level above for its consent.

第五条 行干部退休制度,干部达到任界限或者退休年界限的,当按照有关定程序理免(退休)手。确因工作需要而延(退休)的,当按照干部管理限,由党委(党)研究提出意,上一组织同意。

Article 6 Strictly enforce the leading cadres term system; and limits on the length of terms number of terms; and maximum age limits for posts, shall generally not be extended. Strengthen evaluation and management during terms; those found through evaluation to be unfit to continue service shall have his appointment suspended and be relieved from their current position; and must not remain in office on grounds that his term has not been completed. Removal of leading cadres during their term is handled in accordance with relevant prescribed procedures.

第六条 领导干部职务任期制度,任期年限、届数和最高任年限,一般不得延。加任期内考核和管理,考核定不适宜继续的,当中止任期、免去现职,不得以任期未满为继续留任。干部任期内免按照有关定程序理。

Article 7 Increase the accountability of leading cadres. Except for those circumstances listed under article 5 of the "Interim Provisions on the accountability of Party-state leading cadres", concerned leading cadres with any of the following circumstance shall be held accountable:

第七条 加大领导干部问责力度。除《关于行党政领导干部问责定》第五条所列情形外,具有下列情形之一的,也有关领导干部问责:

(1) weakly implementing the strict Party governance responsibility system; unfulfillment of the responsibility system for construction of clean Party's work styles and governance; or where there are several occurrences in a row of violations of discipline or law in a relatively short period of time within that area, department, unit or field of management;


(2) a weak sense of the rule of law; not handling matters in accordance with the law; not making decisions in accordance with statutory procedures; or postponing decisions which, by law, shall be promptly made, and thereby causing adverse influences and outcomes;


(3) Not firmly taking hold of work-style construction, whereof formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism or extravagance are relatively prominence within that region, department, unit, or field of management.


(4) Nepotism in the work of cadres’ selection and appointment, engagement in corrupt practices, or relatively prominent unhealthy employment practices in one's area, department, unit or field of management;


(5) Slack education and supervision of one's spouse, children and their spouses, and close staff members; weak restraint or even acquiescence to the use of one's authority or professional influence for their benefit to obtain illicit benefits.


Where the above circumstances occur, methods of holding concerned leaders accountable include ordering a public apology, suspension and examination, assuming responsibility and resigning, ordering resignation, or being relieved from their post. The accountability procedures are implemented in accordance with the "Interim Provisions on the accountability of Party-state leading cadres".


Article 8 Adjustments shall be made of cadres unfit to serve in their current post. "Unfit to serve in their current position" principally refers to cadres' ethics, ability, diligence or integrity not meeting the requirements of their office, so that they are unfit to continue filling their current post.
第八条 不适宜担任现职的干部整。不适宜担任现职,主要指干部的德、能、勤、、廉与所任职务要求不符,不宜在现岗继续

Where cadres have any of the following circumstances, and do not make corrections following a warning from their organization, education, the receipt of a written enquiry or "prohibition and exhortation", and are deemed unfit to serve in their current position, they must be promptly adjusted.


(1) Failure to strictly comply with the Party's political discipline and political norms; failure to persist in enforcing the Party's basic path and all guidelines and policies; inability to maintain a high degree of ideological, political, practical conformity with the Party's central organs.


(2) Wavering ideals and faith; an unsteady political position on important issues of principle, inability to rise to the test during crucial times;


(3) Contravening the Party's principle of democratic centralism; acting as one's own authority or weakly and in a disorganized way; refusing to enforce or modifying decisions issued by Party organizations on one's own accord; or starting unprincipled disputes within the leading cadre group.


(4) A weak concept of organization; not enforcing the system for requesting instructions and reporting serious circumstances, or untruthfully reporting or even concealing one's relevant personal matters.


(5) Going against the spirit of the Eight Rules of the Central Committee, not strictly observing provisions relevant to good governance;


(6) Being undaring and irresponsible; being incapable as a cadre, indolent and procrastinating; with relatively big criticisms by cadres and the masses.


(7) Unable to effectively perform one's duties or to fulfill one's work tasks as requested, a retrograde state of affairs or relatively big mistakes in the work of one's unit, or in the work under one's management.


(8) Improper conduct or violations of social mores, professional ethics or family ethics and morals causing a negative influence;


(9) Relocation of one's spouse abroad (or outside the territory), or absent a spouse, relocation of all of one's children abroad, and unfit to serve in one's current position.


(10) other circumstances of being unfit to serve in their current position.


Article 9 Adjustments of cadres unfit for their current positions are generally conducted in accordance with the following procedures:

第九条 调整不适宜担任现职干部,一般按照以下程序进行:

(1) Investigation and verification. Comprehensively analyze yearly evaluations, ordinary evaluations, post inspections, visits, audits, random checks on reports on personal matters, democratic appraisals through discussion, reviews of petition complaint letters and other circumstances; make focussed investigation and verification; and make an objective and fair assessment and accurate determination of the facts. Attention should be paid to hearing feedback from the masses, understanding opinions commonly held by the masses, particularly on hearing the opinions of recipients of work and services and other relevant personnel.


(2) Submission of adjustment recommendations. Party committees (Party groups) or organizational (personnel) departments submit adjustment recommendations on cadres unfit to serve in their current position, on the basis of the the conclusions of evaluation and verification. The adjustment recommendation includes the reason for the adjustment, the method of adjustment, and other such content. Before an adjustment recommendation is submitted, a conversation shall be had with the cadres themselves, explaining the reasons for the adjustment and hearing their explanations and comments.


(3) Organizational decisions. Party Committees (Party groups) convene collective study meetings, to make adjustment decisions. Before making a decision, the opinions of relevant parties shall be heard.


(4) Conversation. The responsible comrade of Party committees (party groups) or the responsible comrade for organizational (personnel) departments talk to the subject of the adjustment, announcing the organizational decision and earnestly and carefully take care of ideological work.


(5) Follow the relevant provisions to perform the removal procedures. The election and appointment or removal of cadres according to law, are conducted in accordance with procedures set forth in the relevant laws and regulations.


Where a cadre does not accept the adjustment decision, he may request its reconsideration in accordance with relevant provisions, or file an appeal to the next higher level organization (personnel) department. The enforcement of adjustments does not stop during reviews or appeals. A cadre's rank and salary shall be adjusted starting from the month following the adjustment of the cadre's position.


Article 10 Cadres unfit to serve in their current position shall, on the basis of their overall behavior and work demands, according to their respective situation, be adjusted in such ways as being transferred, being assigned to non-leadership duties, being relieved of duty, or being demoted to a lower rank. Appropriate arrangements shall be made for cadres who due to personal reasons are not qualified for their current position.

第十条 对不适宜担任现职干部,应当根据其一贯表现和工作需要,区分不同情形,采取调离岗位、改任非领导职务、免职、降职等方式予以调整。对非个人原因不能胜任现职岗位的,应当予以妥善安排。

Article 11 Whoever has been transferred to a different position, assigned to non-leadership duties, or dismissed shall not be selected for promotion for one year; those demoted to a lower rank shall not be selected for promotion for two years. At the end of such periods of time, those with outstanding moral and work performance and work accomplishment may be selected for promotion due to the demands of work, after an assessment of their suitability to the conditions of their appointment.

第十一条 因不适宜担任现职调离岗位、改任非领导职务、免职的,一年内不得提拔;降职的,两年内不得提拔。影响期满后,对德才表现和工作实绩突出,因工作需要且经考察符合任职条件的,可以提拔任职。

Article 12 Where due to health reasons, cadres cannot regularly perform their job duties for one year or longer, their work post shall be adjusted. After recovery, make arrangements consulting their original position.

第十二条 干部因健康原因,无法正常履行工作职责一年以上的,应当对其工作岗位进行调整。恢复健康后,参照原任职务层次作出安排。

Article 13 Where cadres should be removed from Office for violations of law or discipline, promptly remove them from office in accordance with the provided procedures.

第十三条 干部因违纪违法应当免职的,按照规定程序及时予以免职。

Article 14 In moving forward the work of cadre promotion and demotion, work discipline will be strictly enforced, it is not permitted to engage in "good-personism" [Translator's note: this means the idea of seeking good relaitons with everyone], it is not permitted to avoid major matters and dwell on trivial matters, to avoid organizational restructuring through disciplinary punishment or avoid disciplinary punishment through organizational restructuring, it is not permitted to seize opportunities for retaliation.

第十四条 在推进领导干部能上能下工作中,严明工作纪律,不得搞好人主义,不得避重就轻、以纪律处分规避组织调整或者以组织调整代替纪律处分,不得借机打击报复。

Article 15 A solid responsibility system to advance the promotion and demotion of leading cadres shall be constructed, where Party committees (Party groups), shall assume major responsibility, Party Committees (Party groups) secretaries shall be the first person in charge, and organization (personnel) departments shall assume responsibility for concrete work. Advancing the promotion and demotion of leading cadres shall become a major component of comprehensively and severely ruling the Party, severely managing cadres. Principles shall be upheld, and one should dare to take responsibility to truly supervise in a truly strict manner, to dare supervise in a daring manner, and to supervise constantly in a constantly strict manner. The understanding of cadres' daily activities shall be strengthened, the situation of the leading cadre group shall be periodically analyzed and researched, and adjustment of cadres who shall be adjusted shall be promptly made. Cadres who have been demoted in an adjustment are given caring assistance, and directed strengthening of education and management. Correctly grasp the limits of the policy, paying attention to protecting cadres enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and innovation; and be tolerant of mistakes in exploring reforms.

第十五条 建立健全推进领导干部能上能下工作责任制,党委(党组)承担主体责任,党委(党组)书记是第一责任人,组织(人事)部门承担具体工作责任。把推进领导干部能上能下作为全面从严治党、从严管理干部的重要内容,坚持原则、敢于负责,做到真管真严、敢管敢严、长管长严。加强对干部的日常了解,定期分析研判领导班子和干部队伍情况,对应当调整的干部及时作出调整。对调整下来的干部,给予关心帮助,有针对性地加强教育管理。正确把握政策界限,注意保护干部干事创业、改革创新的积极性,宽容改革探索中的失误。

Article 16 Party committees (Party groups) at each level and their organization (personnel) departments shall strengthen supervision and inspection on the work of advancing the promotion and demotion of leading cadres, understand and know well relevant circumstances. Where anyone is inefficient on their work, the responsibility of the person in charge of their Party committee (Party group) and its organization (personnel) department and other relevant personnel shall be strictly prosecuted in accordance with concrete circumstances.

第十六条 各级党委(党组)及其组织(人事)部门应当加强对推进领导干部能上能下工作的督促检查,了解掌握相关工作情况。对工作不力的,应当根据具体情况,严格追究党委(党组)及其组织(人事)部门主要负责人和相关人员的责任。

Article 17 Party Committees (Party groups) of all departments of all regions may formulate detailed implementation measures on the basis of these provisions combined with their own actual circumstances.

第十七条 各地区各部门党委(党组)可以依据本规定,结合自身实际,制定具体实施细则。

Article 18 The Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee is responsible for the interpretation of these provisions.

第十八条 本规定由中央组织部负责解释。

Article 19 These provisions come into force on July 19, 2015.

第十九条 本规定自2015年7月19日起施行。

Within China commentary has been restrained.  Shaoming Zhu (Penn State SJD expected) prepared this summary of that commentary :
1.1.1 Yonggang Zhang: Resolve The Problem That Leading Cadres Can Only Be Promoted But Cannot Be Demoted, People’s Daily, August 24, 2015 张永刚,解决干部能上不能下问题
That leading cadres can only be promoted but cannot be demoted is an outstanding problem in the management of leading cadres, which is also a significant point to the reform of leading personnel. In reality, some leading cadres think they will be just fine as long as they are not against laws and party disciplines and it does not matter if they make substantial contribution to the work. First of all, the Provisions will change this kind of ideas to that it would be fault if it were not contribution. Meanwhile, it will promote the assessment system and standard detailed. Cadre assessment is an important part to deepen the reform to the leading cadres management. Accordingly it raised the question that what kind of cadres shall be demoted under what situations. The Provisions answered this question.
1.1.2 Bin Li, Make good use of the Baton of the Capacity to Promote and Demote, People’s Daily, June 29, 2015 李斌 用好能上能下的指挥棒
Establishing a peer accountability mechanism of power is an inevitable choice of promoting the construction of rule law and modern national governance. To introduce institutional pressure by the reform to the cadre personnel system will guide cadres to be more responsible and encouraging with their work. It also will create a good “soft” environment for reserving talents and elitist, stimulating the vitality of cadres, and bring more positive energy to the reform and development. The Provisions is a big and significant step in terms of the top-level design on talents selection.
1.1.3 Zhengwei Fan, To Promote and Demote, It Has To Overcome Inaction, People’s Daily, July 30, 2015 范正伟, 能上能下,先要克服“好人主义”
The Provisions passes a clear signal that there is no longer “iron bowl” (a secure job). In the past, people used to believe that a cadre would get worried about his job only when he or she is watched by the discipline inspection commission. But since the adoption of the Provisions, one might be persecuted responsibility for not only being against laws and rules, but also failing to fulfill one’s duty or falling to contribute. The Provisions is a real touch on resolving being laziness, indolence and moderation. It also marks the transformation of a modern management system of cadre and personnel.
1.1.4 Shengyu Shi, What to do after being demoted. Peoples’ Daily, August 4, 2015.时圣宇,下了之后怎么办
The Provisions focuses on solving the demotion of cadres. However, it raised another question: what to do after the demotion. The Provisions’ intention is to stimulate the vitality of cadres. Therefore, there should be a continue mechanism and process of long term follow up management for the demoted cadres. For those who continue the negative or slow action, it should increase the efforts on accountability. For those who correct the action and attitude positively, preform outstandingly, and achieve remarkable progress, there should be encouraged. Only in this way, can the Provisions create a real effective system for stimulating the activation of cadres and promoting a virtuous cycle.
It is important to note, though, that these are not new notions.  And indeed it is somewhat surprising that neither commentators nor CCP officials linked these efforts to either the CCP Constitution's General Program nor to Deng Xiaoping Theory.  The challenges that produced Several Provisions on Advancing Capacity To Promote And Demote Leading Cadres (Provisional) 推进领导干部能上能下若干规定(试行)were very much on the minds of senior CCP leaders on the eve of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (无产阶级文化大革命). "The Party must exercise control over itself, over its members and its cadres. For a party in power, the heart of this matter concerns the cadres, because many of its members are working as cadres of varying ranks" (Deng Xiaoping, "Questions Concerning Cadres of the Party in Power," supra). The context, however, was different--the economics of Socialist Modernization has changed the landscape within which the CCP cadre is placed within the administrative and economic apparatus of China. Its parameters were nicely summarized by Deng Xiaoping:
At a recent meeting held by the Secretariat of the Central Committee to hear reports on organizational work, I suggested that cadres be demoted on a trial basis, beginning with cadres at the grass-roots level. For example, after serving two terms in office, the secretary of a brigade Party branch may return to production, and the head of a production brigade may become an ordinary commune member again. Cadres should not always be promoted to higher positions. They may be demoted and should always be ready for either a higher or a lower post, and be ready to lead others and be led. When being led, they can help the leader in the way an ex-secretary of a brigade Party branch helps a new secretary and an ex-head of a production brigade assists the new one. The ex-secretary or ex-head may be elected secretary or head again after leaving office for a couple of years. Enterprises and schools can do the same. In this way, cadres can be tempered. The Central Committee has not discussed this problem yet; I am the first to express an opinion about it. It is not good for a cadre to work at the grass-roots level in the countryside for a long time. After a person has served as secretary of a production brigade Party branch for one or two decades, he forms his own clique, and what he says is taken almost as “imperial edicts”. This hinders the promotion of democracy and the exercise of democratic centralism. If the secretary of a production brigade Party branch is demoted to the position of an ordinary Party member or the head of a production brigade to that of an ordinary commune member, they may be able to make a clear evaluation of the work they did and the work style they displayed while in office. This will help promote democracy. I hope when you go back, you will discuss this method with leading comrades of the bureaus of the Central Committee and the Party committees of provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions to see if it can be tried out in a few places. Personally, I think this may be a good way to approach the problem, and it will certainly not do us any harm. However, this cannot be applied to technical cadres in enterprises; it is not advisable to transfer engineers or competent workshop directors to serve as workers. This method can be tried first among some administrative Party cadres. For example, factory directors can be demoted to serve as workshop directors for a couple of years. Why should they always lead others instead of being led? In short, we should start with cadres at the grass-roots level, making it a rule that cadres be ready to take a higher or a lower post, so that everybody will become accustomed to the practice. In this respect, we are not doing so well as the capitalist societies, where people may be moved to higher or lower posts. I do not know what the Soviet Union is doing about it. Anyway, this is a formidable problem for us to tackle.

More effort should be made to control and supervise cadres. Recently Comrade Liu Shaoqi criticized the long-term lack of appraisal of cadres’ performance. Organization departments should take up this work. Supervision of cadres involves only a few aspects, such as, first of all, requiring Party cadres to take part in the regular activities of the Party organization. At an enlarged working conference of the Central Committee held last January it was noted that it was difficult to supervise many high-ranking cadres who only took part in the regular activities in Party branches. This has been the case for years. During those years we suggested that senior cadres take part in such activities in a Party committee or a leading Party members’ group once every quarter or half a year to discuss their work, and engage in criticism and self-criticism to see whether they have made an effort to correctly and firmly implement the Party’s guiding principles and policies. This is not merely a matter of individual self-cultivation; it is also a type of supervision and a part of the regular activities of the Party organization. This is quite suitable for those high-ranking cadres. There is no question about this suggestion; the point now is to put it into practice. All ordinary Party members and cadres should take part in Party branch or group activities at regular intervals to receive supervision from the Party. The exercise of democratic centralism is also a form of supervision. In addition, supervision is also exercised by Party members and non-Party people, by the Party’s supervisory system and the organization department’s appraisal system. This supervision is mainly over the cadres, including principal, leading cadres at corresponding levels. It would be of tremendous benefit if we could set up and improve day-to-day control and supervision of cadres and restore the system for appraising cadres. It is easier to solve problems as soon as they come up among cadres than to launch a movement for this purpose. (Deng Xiaoping, "Questions Concerning Cadres of the Party in Power," supra).
One notes as well the work of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (Inspection Tour System of the Chinese Communist Party). With the turn toward Party work and working style over the last several years, it is no surprise that the CCP has begun to undertake the same sort of discipline it has imposed on the productive sectors of society as critical components of socialist modernization. 

Though times and context have changed, the challenges to the CCP have not.  And certainly, from an ideological perspective, the obligations of the CCP, in its vanguard role, to serve as an example of self discipline, remains as important. Particularly important, in the current push to strengthen CCP democracy and democratic centralism, is the important insight that cadre entrenchment, especially at the lower levels of the CCP organization can be as corrosive to CCP democracy and its vanguard obligations, as the dangers of cults of personality at the higher levels of the CCP  (and on the latter see 中国共党党工作条例( ) “Regulation of Leading Party Members' Groups of CCP (Trial Implementation)” passed May 29, 2015 .  Beyond mass line and anti-corruption campaigns, the ability fo the CCP to generate collective decision making and a collective working style may well be strengthened by the institution of systems of rotation fo CCP cadres in line with their abilities and to ensure that no clique becomes entrenched at any level of the CCP.  And indeed, notions of collective leadership appear to be a central emerging element in the construction of the CCP going forward (see, e.g., Hu Angang, China's Collective Presidency (Springer 2014, which I examine HERE).

What will be worth examining in the coming months will be the way that each of these innovations in CCP discipline--the mass line campaign, anti-corruption efforts, the coordination of shuanggui and administrative prosecutions, and more intense CCP discipline and CCP demotion--will build a new CCP internal architecture. We are likely to learn more, at least in the form of the articulation of a new CCP line in this respect, at the new CCP Conference.

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