楚人有鬻盾與矛者，譽之曰：「吾盾之堅，物莫能陷之。」以譽其矛曰：「吾矛之利，於物無不陷也。」或曰：「以子之矛陷子之盾，何如？」其人弗能應也。夫不可陷之盾與無不陷之矛，不可同世而立。There was once a man in the state of Chu, who was selling shields and lances. He was praising them saying: “My shields are so firm, that there is nothing that can pierce them.” He praised his lances saying: “My lances are so sharp, that there is nothing that they cannot pierce.” Someone asked: “What if you used your lances to pierce your shields?” The man could not answer. A shield that cannot be pierced and a lance that can pierce everything cannot exist in the same world. (From Han Feizi (韓非子) Translation credit here)
The innovation, as is usual in advances of this sort, occurs at the margins and one with a fairly long time horizon (e.g., Wang and Wang, "A Discussion about the Development of Socialist Market Economic System with the Transformation of Government Function"). Margins, however, are important in this case. They touch on a fundamental way in which the concept of contradiction proves the rationalizing premise for understanding and responding to the world (Mao Zedong, On Contradiction (1937) (矛盾论)). To understand the development of the Chinese economic-political model and its current expression in the Opinion, it is necessary to understand how one resolves (or meets the challenge) of the contradiction of the merchant from Chou described in the opening of this essay (from Han Feizi (韓非子). Is it possible to resolve the contradiction of the shield that cannot be pierced and a lance that can pierce everything that can exist in the same world? To understand the question, and to begin to understand an approach to the response, is the first step in understanding both the importance of the Opinion, as well as the principles that direct and constrain its analysis. To approach analysis of the Opinion from the presumptions and values of the political-economic model of the West may produce little useful analysis (though it will produce satisfaction of being able to dismiss the Opinion for its failures to align with those presumptions).
The Text of the Opinion in the original Chinese, along with a crude English translation and my brief reflections, follows.
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At the present stage, the principal contradiction in Chinese society is that between the ever-growing needs of the people for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. Owing to both domestic factors and international influences, a certain amount of class struggle will continue to exist for a long time to come, and under certain circumstances may even grow more pronounced, however, it is no longer the principal contradiction. In building socialism in China, the basic tasks are to further release and develop the productive forces and gradually achieve socialist modernization and, to this end, reform those elements and areas within the relations of production and the superstructure that are unsuited to the development of the productive forces. (Constitution of the CPC; Preamble).
The dynamic element in the internal structural contradictions below the fundamental contradiction are bound up in that of the implementation of Marxist Markets principles (my thoughts generally HERE). They are embedded into core of the Chinese Communist Party Line and direct its working style in developing policy.
The Communist Party of China shall lead the people in developing the socialist market economy. It shall be firm in consolidating and developing the public sector of the economy and shall remain steadfast in encouraging, supporting, and guiding the development of the non-public sector. It shall give play to the decisive role of market forces in resource allocation and ensure the government plays its role better, and establish a sound system for macroeconomic regulation. (Constitution of the CPC; Preamble).
The Opinion is organized in nine sections with 34 subparts:
(1) "General Requirements" (2 subparts); (2) "Insist on the public ownership as the main body, and develop the economy with multiple ownership systems to enhance the vitality of the micro-main body" (4 subparts); (3) Consolidate the basic system of market economy and ensure fair competition in the market (3 subparts); (4) Build a more complete system of market-based allocation of factors to further stimulate the creativity and market vitality of the whole society (4 subparts); (5) Innovate government management and service methods and improve the macroeconomic governance system (7 subparts); (6) Adhere to and improve the people's livelihood security system and promote social fairness and justice (3 subparts); (7) Build a new level of open economy new system, promote reform and development by opening up (4 subparts); (8) Improve the legal system of the socialist market economy and strengthen the guarantee of the rule of law (4 subparts); and (9) Adhere to and strengthen the overall leadership of the party to ensure the effective implementation of the reform measures (3 subparts).
These contradictions and their ramifications for the way that the Chinese political-economic model will evolve (and the constraints within which such evolution may be expected) can be summarized in the following nine points.
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3. The concept of markets instrumentalism is expanded in Parts 3 and 4. Not just the concept; Parts 3 and 4 reaffirm the specific policy objectives around which the concept, as developed, is to be applied. Reaffirmed as well is the fundamental character of the concept: that markets are used as an allocation mechanism, but the drivers of the market, the boundaries within which those allocations are made, and the objectives that shape the valuation that is at the heart of market transactions, are managed through the political decision making of the state and executed within those boundaries by the individual (and now managed choices) of market participants--either individuals or institutions (domestic or foreign). It is this approach to contradiction that distinguishes Markets Marxism from that of liberal democratic states. And it is that difference that then contributes in significant respect ot the character and functioning of the law and administrative systems of the state.
4. Part 5, the longest of the Opinion, then specifies the key political and policy objectives around which markets (and market choices) are managed. These align tightly with the CPC line (it would have been odd if it had not). Indeed, Part 5 is most usefully read against the General Program of the Communist Party Constitution, at least with resect to the macro-values that must be manifested in specific policy. A key area here is the underlining of the importance of data driven governance as a basis for the management of the socialist market economy.
Construct a social credit system and a new type of supervision mechanism that meet the requirements of high-quality development. Improve the long-term mechanism of integrity construction, promote the sharing of credit information, and establish an orderly opening mechanism for credit information of government departments to market players. Improve the credit reference system covering the whole society, and cultivate credit reference agencies and credit rating agencies with global voice. (Opinion Part 5(7)).
The importance of this provision ought not to be underestimated. It has already manifested itself both as against domestic and foreign enterprises operating in China. But given the current transnational climate, it is also likely to be used by foreign states as a basis for pressuring their enterprises to at least diversify their supply chains.
5.Part 6 more directly addresses the relationship between the New Era's principal contradiction and the construction of the Socialist Market Economy. In the wake of COVID-19, these approaches will likely have a more significant role to play in the construction of the economic model. At the same time, art 6 reminds the reader that the economic model is inherently both political and tied to a view of national security that now aligns worker health, economic security and national defense.
Improve the national public health emergency management system. Strengthen the guarantee of the rule of law in public health, and improve relevant laws and regulations in the field of public health. Integrate biosecurity into the national security system, systematically plan the construction of national biosecurity risk prevention and control systems, and comprehensively improve national biosecurity governance capabilities. (Opinion).
Adhere to the open strategy of mutual benefit and win-win, promote the deep and practical development of the “Belt and Road” and high-quality development, promote greater circulation of commodities, capital, technology and personnel, and develop high-level economic and trade industrial cooperation parks based on various development zones. Strengthen soft connectivity in markets, rules, and standards, and strengthen cooperation mechanisms (Opinion Part 7(1))Just as the issues of biosecurity evidenced the alignment of state-market-and defense; so the Belt and Road Initiative underlines the strong alignment between market-foreign policy-and international political relations. But more than that it also speaks to the connection between economic, social and cultural projects. Here one hears the key elements of Chinese foreign policy aligned to the core premises of the framing of the Socialist Market Economy. " Actively participate in the reform of the global economic governance system. . . . Relying on the joint construction of the “Belt and Road” initiative and multilateral and regional subregional cooperation mechanisms such as the United Nations, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BRICS, G20, APEC, etc., actively participate in global economic governance and public product supply, and build global interconnection partners " (Opinion Part 7(4)). And, indeed, the fundamental connection between the internal conceptualization of the Socialist Market Economy and its intimate connection with China's outbound economic model is quite conscious (e.g., China’s Guideline to Improve Socialist Market Economy).
7. Part 8 then deals with the contradiction between law and politics, and between market and rule bases for the organization of economic activity. Law assumes a much more pointedly instrumental (and subordinate) role (consist with Marxist Leninism as emerging in the New Era). Law is understood as a supervisory mechanism, and in that form, eventually allied with the construction of data driven managerial systems. It is the connection between Part 8 and Part 5(7) that ought to be of great interest. The call to "Establish an administrative power restriction and supervision mechanism in an all-round way. Fully perform government functions in accordance with the law, promote the legalization of institutions, functions, authorities, procedures, and responsibilities, and implement a government power and responsibility list system." (Opinion Part 8(3)) suggests the role fo law as a discretion constraining device as well as as a means of memorializing objectives realized through either markets or data driven analytics.
Adhere to and improve the party and state supervision system, strengthen political supervision, strictly restrict public power, and promote the implementation of the main responsibility of the party committee (party group), the responsibility of the first responsible person of the secretary, and the supervision responsibility of the discipline inspection commission. (Opinion Part 8(4))To that end, the dispute resolution system (courts) and the supervisory system (prosecutors) are also embedded "to ensure that there are laws that can be followed, laws must be followed, and violations must be investigated." (Opinion Part 8).
8. Part 9 puts the CPC at the center of reform efforts, and of the management of the system administered through state organs. Its purpose serves as an application fo the core principle of Chinese Leninism--the role of CPC leadership and its prominence in the exercise of political authority under the political-economic model in China. " Give full play to the party's core role of taking over the overall situation and coordinating the leadership of all parties, transform the institutional advantages of the party's leadership in economic work into governance effectiveness, strengthen the implementation of reforms and achieve results, and promote the continuous deepening of economic system reforms." (Opinion Part 9). That leadership role is to be exercised "a profound understanding of the great significance of accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system from a strategic and overall perspective, and penetrate the party's leadership into deepening the economic system " (Opinion Part 9(1)). It is a reminder, as well, that the construction (and perfection) of the Socialist Market Economy is primarily a political project, that this political project is itself constrained by the obligations of the CPC as a Leninist vanguard in its fundamental responsibility for moving the nation toward the establishment of a communist society, that this communist society will be established only as the nation becomes so wealthy that wealth no longer matters (and thus overcomes the contradiction of class struggle), and that the valuation of the process by which this is to be achieved remains entirely within the organs of the CPC, and then administered through the state organs even if undertaken by the private sector, That, in essence, then, is the fundamental organizing principle of the Chinese Socialist Market Economy.
9. The underlining of these fundamentals--and their sharpening of the ecology of contradiction as the basis for the forward progress of the nation under the leadership of the Leninist vanguard party--might well serve as an important baseline against which the very public meetings of the National People's Congress will be held in the third quarter of May.
This year’s meetings take place against the backdrop of an international backlash to Beijing’s handling of the disease outbreak that started in the central China city of Wuhan. Other governments are demanding more information about the origins of the epidemic and calling for an international investigation. . . . The need for a domestic economic balancing act as a result of the epidemic and the global backlash might force a strategic rethink, said Shi Yinhong, an international affairs specialist with Renmin University. (China legislature meets to set tone for global role in post-pandemic world)At the same time, this year marks the end of the 13th Five Year Plan and the necessary construction of the next. In that context, a sound ideological basis, couyp0led with strategic targets that deepen the alignment between the underlying principles of the political-economic model and its manifestation in the New Era is substantially important. That need--the imperative to meet and progress through contradiction--will tend to drive analysis far more than the usual Western approaches to the issue of macro-economics. Not that globally powerful conceptions of economic thinking will be absent--quite the contrary. Yet it is the underlying political vision that will inform the way leaders approach risk and value choices. And these will drive Chinese macro-economic planning in directions that are likely to be increasingly different (and apparent) from that one would expect to be made by Western elite drivers of liberal democratic risk and choice valuation principles.
To try to understand the emergence and characteristics of the Chinese Socialist Market Economy on the basis of Western conceptions and principles, then is to entirely miss its point. It is to entirely misunderstand the way objectives are constructed and valued, and the way that the relationships between state and market, between political and economic power, and between law and governance are understood, valued, and embedded into a system. To understand this approach on its own terms does not require agreement with its principles or viewpoints, but it does require that they be clearly understood, and understood as a plausible rationalization of a system built on the operating parameters embraced. What one does after (or with) that, of course, is politics. "A shield that cannot be pierced and a lance that can pierce everything cannot exist in the same world" (From Han Feizi (韓非子) Translation credit here). However, they might be used together against those without either shield or lance; from contradiction, forward movement.
2020-05-18 19:00 来源： 新华社
【字体：大 中 小】打印
Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Accelerating the Improvement of the Socialist Market Economic System in the New Era
2020-05-18 19:00 Source: Xinhua News Agency
Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, May 18th, by wire
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Opinions on accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system in the new era
(May 11, 2020)
The socialist market economic system is a major theoretical and practical innovation of socialism with Chinese characteristics and an important part of the basic socialist economic system. Since the reform and opening up, especially since the 18th National Party Congress, China has insisted on comprehensively deepening reforms, giving full play to the traction of economic system reform, and constantly improving the socialist market economic system, which has greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of hundreds of millions of people and greatly promoted the development of productive forces. This has greatly enhanced the vitality of the party and the country and created a miracle of rapid economic development that is rare in the world. At the same time, we must see that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, the main social contradictions have changed, and the economy has shifted from the stage of rapid growth to the stage of high-quality development. Compared with these new situations and new requirements, China ’s market system is still not perfect and the market is still developing Insufficient, the relationship between the government and the market is not completely straightened out, there are also insufficient market incentives, poor flow of factors, low resource allocation efficiency, and weak microeconomic vitality. There are still many institutional obstacles to promoting high-quality development. We must further emancipate our minds, unswervingly deepen market-oriented reforms, expand high-level opening up, and continue to make breakthroughs in key fundamental reforms in the economic system. In order to implement the strategic deployment of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the Fourth Plenary Session of the Nineteenth Central Committee on adhering to and improving the basic socialist economic system, we will promote economic system reform and other aspects of system reform at a higher starting point, higher level, and higher goals To build a more systematic, more mature and mature high-level socialist market economic system, the following comments are now made.
1. General requirements
(1) Guiding ideology. Guided by Xi Jinping's socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era, fully implement the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Party and the Second, Third, and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, resolutely implement the party's basic theories, basic lines, and basic strategies, and promote the "Five The “one-in-one” overall layout and coordinated promotion of the “four comprehensive” strategic layout, adhere to the overall tone of steady progress, adhere to the new development concept, adhere to the supply-side structural reform as the main line, adhere to the people-centered development thinking, adhere to And improve the basic economic system of socialism, focus on improving the property rights system and the market-oriented allocation of factors, comprehensively deepen the reform of the economic system, accelerate the improvement of the socialist market economic system, build a high-standard market system, and realize effective incentives for property rights, free flow of factors, and prices Flexible response, fair and orderly competition, survival of the fittest in the enterprise, strengthening and improving the system supply, advancing the modernization of the national governance system and governance capabilities, promoting the adaptation of production relations to productivity, superstructure and economic foundation, and promoting higher quality, more efficiency and more Fair and more sustainable development.
(2) Basic principles
-Adhere to the guidance of Xi Jinping's socialist economic thinking with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Adhere to and strengthen the party's overall leadership, adhere to and improve the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, strengthen problem orientation, grasp the correct reform strategies and methods, continue to optimize economic governance, and strive to build an effective market mechanism, dynamic micro-subjects, and moderate macro-control The economic system has made the socialist system with Chinese characteristics more consolidated and fully demonstrated its superiority.
-Persist in emancipating and developing productive forces. Firmly grasp the basic national conditions of the primary stage of socialism, firmly hold the center of economic construction, give play to the traction of economic system reform, coordinate the promotion of reforms in the political, cultural, social, ecological civilization and other fields, promote the efficient linkage of reform and development, and further liberate and Develop social productive forces and continuously meet the people's growing needs for a better life.
-Uphold and improve the basic socialist economic system. Persist in and improve the public ownership as the mainstay, the development of a variety of ownership economies, the distribution of labor as the mainstay, multiple coexistence methods, the socialist market economic system and other socialist basic economic systems, and organically integrate the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the market economy To provide an important institutional guarantee for promoting high-quality development and building a modern economic system.
——Adhere to the correct handling of government and market relations. Adhere to the direction of the socialist market economy reform, respect the general laws of the market economy more, minimize the government's direct allocation of market resources and direct intervention in microeconomic activities, give full play to the decisive role of the market in resource allocation, and better play the role of the government To effectively compensate for market failures.
—— Adhere to the main line of supply-side structural reforms. More reform methods, more market-based legalization methods, more efforts to consolidate, strengthen, improve, and smooth, increase structural reform efforts, innovate system supply, continuously enhance economic innovation and competitiveness, adapt and trigger Effective demand promotes a higher level of dynamic balance between supply and demand.
——Insist on expanding high-level opening and deepening market-oriented reforms to promote mutual progress. Unswervingly expand opening, promote the transition from commodity and factor flow opening to rules and other institutional openings, absorb the experience of the international mature market economy system and the beneficial results of human civilization, accelerate the integration of domestic institutional rules with the international standards, and promote deep opening with a high level of opening Hierarchical market reform.
2. Insist on the public ownership as the main body, and develop the economy with multiple ownership systems to enhance the vitality of the micro-main body
Unwaveringly consolidate and develop the public economy, unwaveringly encourage, support, and guide the development of the non-public economy, explore various forms of public ownership, support the reform and development of private enterprises, and cultivate more dynamic market players.
(1) Promoting the optimization of the layout of the state-owned economy and structural adjustment. Persist in advancing and retreating, doing something and not doing something, promoting more investment of state-owned capital in important fields related to national economy and people's livelihood, and related to the national economic lifeline, science and technology, national defense, security and other fields, serving national strategic goals, enhancing state-owned economic competitiveness Innovation, control, influence, and ability to resist risks, strengthen and optimize state-owned capital, and effectively prevent the loss of state-owned assets. For the state-owned economy in the field of full competition, optimize the allocation of state-owned capital by means of capitalization and securitization, and increase the return of state-owned capital. Further improve and strengthen the supervision of state-owned assets, effectively play the role of state-owned capital investment and operating company functions, adhere to one enterprise and one strategy, mature one to promote one, run a successful one, revitalize the stock of state-owned capital, and promote the preservation and appreciation of state-owned assets.
(2) Actively and steadily promote the reform of mixed ownership of state-owned enterprises. On the basis of in-depth implementation of pilot projects of mixed ownership reform in key areas, in accordance with the requirements of improving governance, strengthening incentives, highlighting the main business, and improving efficiency, promote mixed ownership reform and regulate the orderly development of mixed ownership economy. For state-funded enterprises and state-owned capital operating company-funded enterprises in the field of full competition, explore the transformation of some state-owned equity into preferred shares and strengthen the function of state-owned capital income. Support qualified mixed ownership enterprises to establish medium- and long-term incentive mechanisms such as key employee stock ownership, listed company equity incentives, technology-based enterprise equity and dividend incentives. Deepen the reform of state-owned enterprises, speed up the improvement of the corporate governance structure and market-oriented operating mechanism of state-owned enterprises, improve the tenure system of managers and contract management, and improve the modern enterprise system with Chinese characteristics. For enterprises with mixed ownership, explore the establishment of a governance mechanism and supervision system that are different from those of wholly state-owned or wholly-owned companies. For mixed-ownership enterprises where state-owned capital is no longer absolutely controlled, explore and implement a more flexible and efficient supervision system.
(3) Steadily promote the reform of natural monopoly industries. Deepen the reforms with the separation of government and enterprise, separation of government and capital, franchising, and government supervision as the main content, improve the quality of infrastructure supply in the natural monopoly industry, strictly regulate the natural monopoly link, accelerate the marketization of competitive links, and effectively break administrative monopoly, Prevent market monopoly. Build an effective and competitive electricity market, orderly release electricity development plans and electricity prices at competitive links, and increase the degree of marketization of electricity transactions. Promote the fair opening of oil and gas pipeline networks to market players, liberalize natural gas sources and sales prices in a timely manner, and improve the competitive oil and gas circulation market. Deepen the reform of the railway industry and promote the diversification of the main players in the railway transportation market and moderate competition. Separate operations for universal postal service business and competitive business. Improve the tobacco monopoly system and build a new mechanism for moderate competition.
(4) Create an institutional environment that supports the high-quality development of the non-public economy. Improve the market, policies, rule of law and social environment that support the development of the private economy and foreign-invested enterprises, and further stimulate vitality and creativity. Treat enterprises of all types of ownership equally in terms of factor acquisition, entry permits, operation and operation, government procurement, bidding, etc., to break down all kinds of obstacles and hidden barriers that restrict market competition, and to create equal use of resource elements, A market environment in which competition is open, fair and just, and equally protected by law. Improve the implementation details and specific measures to support the non-public economy to enter the fields of power, oil and gas, etc., greatly relax market access in the service sector, and release more room for development to social capital. Improve the system for supporting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, increase the supply of financial services for small and medium-sized enterprises, and support the development of small and medium-sized financial institutions such as private banks and community banks. Improve the private enterprise financing and credit support system. Improve the direct financing support system for private enterprises. We will improve the long-term mechanism for clearing and preventing arrears in private enterprise SME accounts, and create a market environment that is conducive to resolving debt problems among private enterprises. We will improve the policy system for establishing a pro-Qing government-business relationship, establish a standardized mechanism for government-enterprise communication channels, and encourage private enterprises to participate in the implementation of major national strategies.
3. Consolidate the basic system of market economy and ensure fair competition in the market
Build a high-standard market system, comprehensively improve systems such as property rights, market access, and fair competition, and lay a solid foundation for the effective operation of the socialist market economy.
(1) Comprehensively improve the property rights system. Improve the modern property rights system with clear ownership, clear rights and responsibilities, strict protection and smooth circulation, and strengthen property rights incentives. Improve the property management system of operating state-owned assets with capital management as the mainstay, and accelerate the transformation of the functions and performance methods of state-owned assets supervision institutions. Improve the property rights system of natural resource assets. Improve the property rights protection system based on the principle of fairness, comprehensively and equally protect private economic property rights according to law, and severely investigate and punish all kinds of acts that infringe on the legitimate rights and interests of private enterprises. Implement the policy of extending the second 30-year rural land contract after the expiration of another 30 years, and improve the "three powers separation" system for rural contracted land. Deepen the reform of the rural collective property rights system, improve property rights and capabilities, quantify the conversion of operating assets to members of collective economic organizations, innovate the effective organization form and operating mechanism of the rural collective economy, and improve the basic rural management system. Improve and refine the rules for the creation, use, transaction and protection of intellectual property, accelerate the establishment of a punitive compensation system for intellectual property infringement, strengthen the protection of business secrets, and improve the intellectual property protection system for new areas and new formats.
(2) Fully implement the market access negative list system. Promote a "national list" management model to maintain the unity and authority of the list. Establish a dynamic adjustment mechanism for the negative list of market access and a third-party evaluation mechanism, and further relax the access restrictions by focusing on the service industry. Establish a unified list code system so that the list items are closely linked and matched with the administrative approval system. Establish a market access negative list information disclosure mechanism to improve access policy transparency and ease of use of negative lists. Establish a market access assessment system, regularly assess, investigate, and clear up all kinds of explicit and hidden barriers, and promote the universal implementation of "non-prohibited entry". Reform the production permit system.
(3) Fully implement the fair competition review system. Improve the competition policy framework, establish and improve the implementation mechanism of competition policy, and strengthen the foundation of competition policy. Strengthen the rigid constraints of fair competition review, revise and improve the fair competition review implementation rules, establish a fair competition review spot check, assessment, and publicity system, and establish and improve a third-party review and evaluation mechanism. Make overall planning for incremental review and inventory clearance, and gradually clear and abolish the inventory policies that impede a unified market and fair competition across the country. Establish green channels for reporting and reporting violations of fair competition. Strengthen and improve anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition law enforcement, increase law enforcement and increase the cost of illegality. Cultivate and promote a fair competition culture, and further create a fair competition social environment.
4. Build a more complete system of market-based allocation of factors to further stimulate the creativity and market vitality of the whole society
Focusing on the reform of factor-based market allocation, we will accelerate the construction of a unified, open, and orderly market system, promote the construction of factor market systems, and achieve factor price market decisions, independent, orderly flow, and efficient and fair allocation.
(1) Establish and improve a unified and open factor market. Accelerate the construction of a unified urban and rural construction land market, and establish a system for entering rural collectively-operated construction land with the same rights and the same price, smooth circulation, and shared revenue. Explore the "three separate rights" of ownership, qualification and use rights of rural homesteads, and deepen the reform of rural homesteads. Deepen the reform of the household registration system, relax the restrictions on city settlement except for some megacities, and explore the implementation of the system of residence registration and mutual recognition of residence permits in urban agglomerations. Promote the transformation of public resources from allocation according to city administrative levels to allocation according to actual service management population size. Accelerate the establishment of a standardized, transparent, open, energetic and resilient capital market, strengthen the establishment of a capital market basic system, promote the reform of the stock issuance registration system with information disclosure as the core, improve the mandatory delisting and active delisting systems, and increase the number of listed companies Quality, strengthen investor protection. Explore the implementation of a corporate credit bond issuance registration management system. Build a banking system that is compatible with the real economic structure and financing needs, has multiple levels, wide coverage, and differs. Accelerate the cultivation and development of the data element market, establish a data resource list management mechanism, improve data ownership definition, open sharing, transaction circulation and other standards and measures, and play the value of social data resources. Promote the construction of digital government, strengthen the orderly sharing of data, and protect personal information according to law.
(2) Promoting market-oriented reform of factor prices. Improve the mechanism by which the market determines prices, and minimize the government ’s improper intervention in price formation. Improve the price formation mechanism of urban construction land and the policy of active utilization of existing land, promote the redevelopment of low-efficiency land in cities and towns, and promote the comprehensive development and utilization of land and the rational conversion of uses under the premise of complying with the national spatial planning. Deepen the reform of interest rate marketization, improve the benchmark interest rate and market-based interest rate system, better play the benchmark role of the national debt yield curve pricing, and enhance the independent pricing ability of financial institutions. Improve the market-oriented formation mechanism of the RMB exchange rate and enhance the two-way floating flexibility. Accelerate the construction of a national technology trading platform, actively develop scientific and technological achievements, patents and other asset evaluation services to promote the orderly flow of technical elements and the formation of reasonable prices.
(3) Market-oriented allocation of innovative elements. Reduce the scope of land expropriation, strictly define the scope of public interest land use, and establish a land expropriation catalog and a public interest land identification mechanism. Promote the reform of state-owned enterprises and institutions to reform the disposal of land assets, and promote the allocation and utilization of land. Improve the system of multi-subject and multi-mode land supply for industrial land. Under the premise of conforming to the national spatial planning, explore and increase the supply of mixed industrial land. Promote the social mobility of labor and talents, improve the flow of talents in enterprises and institutions, and smooth the flow of talents across ownership. Seize the new opportunities for global talent flow and build a more open international talent exchange and cooperation mechanism.
(4) Advance the quality and efficiency of the commodity and service markets. Promote the innovation and development of the commodity market, improve market operation and regulatory rules, comprehensively promote the construction of an important product information traceability system, and establish a long-term mechanism to combat counterfeit and shoddy commodities. Construct a modern service market system with complementary advantages and coordinated support. Deepen the reform of the circulation system, strengthen the construction of a full-chain standard system, develop "Internet + circulation", and reduce the logistics cost of the whole society. Strengthen the protection of consumer rights and interests and explore the establishment of a class action system.
5. Innovate government management and service methods and improve the macroeconomic governance system
Improve government economic regulation, market supervision, social management, public services, ecological environmental protection and other functions, innovate and improve macroeconomic regulation, and further improve macroeconomic governance capabilities.
(1) Construct a new mechanism for effective and coordinated macro-control. Accelerate the establishment of a macro-control target system, policy system, decision-making coordination system, supervision and evaluation system, and guarantee system that meet the requirements of high-quality development and reflect the new development concept. Improve the macro-control system that takes the national development plan as the strategic guide, uses fiscal policy, monetary policy, and employment priority policies as the main means, and invests, consumes, industries, and regions coordinated efforts to strengthen the forward-looking, targeted, and Synergy. Improve the country's major development strategies and mid- and long-term economic and social development planning systems. Scientifically and steadily grasp the strength of the counter-cyclical adjustment of macro policies, better play the role of fiscal policies in supporting the optimization and upgrading of the economic structure, and improve the two-pillar regulation framework of monetary policy and macro-prudential policy. Implement the employment priority policy and give full play to the livelihood policy. Improve the system and mechanism for promoting consumption and enhance the basic role of consumption in economic development. Deepen the reform of the investment and financing system and give play to the key role of investment in optimizing the supply structure. Strengthen the construction of the national economic security system and build a national food security and strategic resource and energy reserve system. Optimize the basic database of economic governance. Strengthen economic monitoring, forecasting and early warning capabilities, make full use of new technologies such as big data and artificial intelligence, establish a major risk identification and early warning mechanism, and strengthen social anticipation management.
(2) Accelerate the establishment of a modern fiscal and taxation system. Optimize the division of authority and financial authority among governments, establish clear central and local fiscal relations with clear powers and responsibilities, coordinate financial resources, and establish regional balance, and form a stable system of government authority, expenditure responsibilities, and financial resources at all levels. Appropriately strengthen the central government's powers in intellectual property protection, pension insurance, cross-regional ecological environmental protection, etc., and reduce and standardize the central and local joint powers. Improve the budget system with scientific standards, standard transparency, and strong constraints, fully implement budget performance management, and improve the efficiency of the use of financial funds. Establish a government debt financing mechanism with standardized management, clear responsibilities, openness and transparency, and controllable risks according to law, and strengthen supervision and accountability. Clean up and regulate local financing platform companies, and strip off government financing functions. Deepen the reform of the tax system, improve the direct tax system and gradually increase its proportion. The study shifted the collection of consumption tax on some items. Establish and improve the personal income tax system combining comprehensive and classification. Promote real estate tax legislation steadily. Improve the local tax system, adjust and improve the local tax system, cultivate and expand local tax revenue sources, and steadily expand the power of local tax management.
(3) Strengthen coordination of monetary policy, macro-prudential policy and financial supervision. Build a modern central bank system, improve the central bank's monetary policy decision-making mechanism, improve the basic currency release mechanism, and promote the transformation of monetary policy from quantitative control to price control. Establish a modern financial supervision system, comprehensively strengthen macro-prudential management, strengthen comprehensive supervision, highlight functional supervision and behavior supervision, and formulate cross-cutting financial product supervision rules. Strengthen the construction of financial supervision systems for weak links, eliminate supervision gaps, and keep the bottom line where no systematic financial risks occur. Define the division of responsibilities between the central and local financial regulatory authorities in accordance with the law and regulations, and strengthen local government financial supervision responsibilities and risk disposal responsibilities. Establish and improve the basic financial consumer protection system. Realize the convertibility of RMB capital items in an orderly manner and steadily promote RMB internationalization.
(4) Comprehensively improve the scientific and technological innovation system and organizational system. Strengthen the construction of the national innovation system, prepare a new round of national mid- and long-term scientific and technological development plans, strengthen the national strategic scientific and technological strength, build a new nationwide system of key core technologies under the socialist market economy, and focus national research resources on key areas, key projects, Key units. Improve the institutional mechanisms that encourage basic research and original innovation, moderately advance the construction of major national science and technology infrastructure in important areas, study and establish a multi-input mechanism for the construction and operation of major science and technology infrastructure, and support private enterprises to participate in key technological innovations in key areas. Establish and improve a scientific research reserve and support system for responding to major public events. Reform and improve the formation mechanism and organization implementation mechanism of the central financial science and technology plan, more support enterprises to undertake scientific research tasks, encourage enterprises to increase investment in research and development, and improve technological innovation performance. Establish a technology innovation system that is enterprise-centered, market-oriented, and deeply integrated with production, education, and research. It supports large and medium-sized enterprises and all types of main bodies in innovation, promotes the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, and improves the public trading and supervision system for the transformation of technological achievements. Transformation and industrialization. Improve the discovery, training, and incentive mechanisms for scientific and technological talents, improve the scientific and technological management system and policy system in accordance with the laws of scientific research, improve the scientific and technological evaluation system, and give scientific research personnel the title of scientific and technological achievements or long-term use rights.
(5) Improve the industrial policy and regional policy system. Promote the transformation of industrial policies into inclusiveness and functionality, strengthen support for technological innovation and structural upgrades, and strengthen coordination between industrial and competition policies. Improve the system and mechanism for promoting the development of advanced manufacturing and revitalizing the real economy. Establish a long-term mechanism for market-oriented rule of law to resolve excess capacity, and improve systems and policies that are conducive to promoting market-based mergers and acquisitions, transformation, and upgrading. Establish a new mechanism for regional coordinated development, and improve the implementation mechanism of major national regional strategic advancements such as the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, Form a regional economic layout with obvious main functions, complementary advantages, and high-quality development. Improve the urban and rural integration development mechanism.
(6) Continuously optimize government services with the traction of a first-class business environment. Deeply promote the reform of “delegation and management”, deepen the reform of the administrative approval system, further streamline administrative licensing matters, implement a “certificate separation” reform for all business-related licensing matters, and vigorously promote “post-license reduction”. Comprehensively carry out reform of the approval system for engineering construction projects. Deepen the reform of the investment approval system, simplify and integrate the investment project construction procedures, promote the reform of the investment project commitment system, and rely on the national investment project online approval supervision platform to strengthen the supervision after the event. Innovate administrative management and service methods, carry out "Internet + government service", and accelerate the construction of a national integrated government service platform. Establish and improve institutional rules for administrative management using Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and other technical means. Implement the "Regulations on Optimizing the Business Environment", improve the business environment evaluation system, conduct business environment evaluation nationwide in a timely manner, and accelerate the creation of a market-based, rule-of-law, and international business environment
(7) Construct a social credit system and a new type of supervision mechanism that meet the requirements of high-quality development. Improve the long-term mechanism of integrity construction, promote the sharing of credit information, and establish an orderly opening mechanism for credit information of government departments to market players. Improve the credit reference system covering the whole society, and cultivate credit reference agencies and credit rating agencies with global voice. Implement the "Xinyi +" project. Improve the credit repair mechanism of untrustworthy subjects. Establish a system of monitoring and governance of government credibility, and establish and improve a system of accountability for government dishonesty. Strict market supervision, quality supervision and safety supervision, and strengthen disciplinary actions. Strengthen the reform and innovation of market supervision and improve a new supervision mechanism based on "double random and one open" supervision, supplemented by key supervision, and based on credit supervision. Focusing on food safety, drug safety and vaccine safety, a unified and authoritative whole-process food and drug safety supervision system will be improved. Improve the network market regulation system and promote the healthy development of the network market. Improve the inclusive and prudential supervision system for the new format.
6. Adhere to and improve the people's livelihood security system and promote social fairness and justice
Adhere to the principle of distribution according to work, coexist with multiple distribution methods, optimize the pattern of income distribution, improve the sustainable multi-level social security system, and make the reform and development achievements more fair and benefit all people.
(1) Improve the income distribution system that reflects efficiency and promotes fairness. Adhere to more work and more income, focus on protecting labor income, increase labor compensation for workers, especially first-line workers, increase the proportion of labor compensation in the initial distribution, achieve simultaneous growth of residents' income while economic growth, and achieve while increasing labor productivity Labor remuneration has increased simultaneously. Improve the mechanism of labor, capital, land, knowledge, technology, management, data and other production factors that are contributed by market evaluation and determined by contribution. Improve the enterprise salary survey and information release system, and improve the minimum wage standard adjustment mechanism. Promote the reform of the salary system in universities and research institutes, and expand the autonomy of salary distribution. Encourage enterprises and institutions to implement flexible and diverse forms of distribution for scientific research personnel. Improve the redistribution adjustment mechanism with taxation, social security and transfer payment as the main means. Improve the third distribution mechanism and develop charity and other social welfare undertakings. Take multiple measures to promote the increase in income of urban and rural residents, narrow the income distribution gap, and expand the middle-income group.
(2) Improve the social security system covering all people. Improve the overall urban and rural, sustainable basic pension insurance system, basic medical insurance system, and steadily improve the level of protection. Implement the central adjustment system for the basic pension insurance fund for enterprise employees, realize the national pooling of pension insurance as soon as possible, and promote the long-term balance of the basic pension insurance fund. Fully push forward the transfer of some state-owned capital from the central and local governments to enrich the work of social security funds. Vigorously develop enterprise annuity, occupational annuity, personal savings pension insurance and commercial pension insurance. Deepen the reform of the medical and health system, improve the unified urban and rural residents' medical insurance and serious illness insurance system, improve the basic medical insurance financing and treatment adjustment mechanism, continue to promote the reform of medical insurance payment methods, and accelerate the implementation of the settlement system for medical treatment in different places. Improve the unemployment insurance system. Carry out pilots for occupational injury protection for employees in new formats. Coordinate and improve social assistance, social welfare, charity, preferential treatment and other systems. Strengthen the coordination of social assistance resources and improve the basic people's livelihood guarantee mechanism. Accelerate the establishment of a housing system with multi-subject supply, multi-channel security, and rent-purchase simultaneous reform, and reform the housing provident fund system.
(3) Improve the national public health emergency management system. Strengthen the guarantee of the rule of law in public health, and improve relevant laws and regulations in the field of public health. Integrate biosecurity into the national security system, systematically plan the construction of national biosecurity risk prevention and control systems, and comprehensively improve national biosecurity governance capabilities. Improve the public health service system, optimize the input structure of medical and health resources, and strengthen the construction of rural and community grassroots prevention and control capabilities. Improve and optimize the major epidemic treatment system, and establish and improve the classification, stratification, and diversion of infectious diseases and other major epidemic treatment mechanisms. Improve the prevention and control regulations for sudden and severe epidemics and emergency rescue management methods. Improve the medical insurance and rescue system for major diseases, and improve the emergency medical rescue mechanism. Explore the establishment of an exemption system for medical expenses for special groups and specific diseases. Improve the unified emergency material guarantee system, optimize the guarantee of important emergency material assets and regional layout, improve the national reserve system, improve the category, scale and structure of the reserve, and enhance the reserve efficiency.
7. Build a new level of open economy new system, promote reform and development by opening up
Implement a more proactive opening strategy, comprehensively connect with the international high-standard market rules system, and implement a wider scope, wider fields, and deeper comprehensive opening.
(1) Focus on the construction of the “Belt and Road” and build a new pattern of opening up. Adhere to the open strategy of mutual benefit and win-win, promote the deep and practical development of the “Belt and Road” and high-quality development, promote greater circulation of commodities, capital, technology and personnel, and develop high-level economic and trade industrial cooperation parks based on various development zones. Strengthen soft connectivity in markets, rules, and standards, and strengthen cooperation mechanisms. Strengthen the opening up of the western and border regions, promote the construction of new land-sea passages in the west, promote the coordinated opening of the East, China, and the West, and accelerate the formation of an open pattern in which land and sea are linked internally and externally, and East and West are mutually beneficial.
(2) Accelerate the construction of open highlands such as free trade pilot zones and free trade ports. Deepen the reform of the pilot free trade zone, and replicate and promote the reform achievements in a larger area. The new port area of China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone is well established, giving it greater authority for independent development, independent reform and independent innovation management. Focus on trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and steadily promote the construction of Hainan Free Trade Port.
(3) Improve the high-level open policy guarantee mechanism. Promote the high-quality development of trade, expand the diversification of foreign trade, increase the added value of general trade export products, and promote the upgrading of the processing trade industrial chain and the innovative development of service trade. Run the China International Import Expo well, increase the import of goods and services on a larger scale, reduce the overall tariff level, strive to eliminate non-tariff trade barriers, substantially reduce the institutional costs of import and export links, and promote balanced development of trade. Promote the expansion and opening up of manufacturing, service, and agriculture, allow foreign investment to hold shares or sole proprietorships in more areas, and fully remove restrictions outside the negative list of foreign investment access. We will improve the management system for national treatment prior to entry of foreign investment plus a negative list, and promote the opening of rules, regulations, management, and standards. Improve the system of foreign investment national security review, antitrust review, national technical security list management, and list of unreliable entities. Improve foreign investment promotion policies and service systems. Fully implement the Foreign Investment Law and its implementation regulations, promote fair competition between domestic and foreign-funded enterprises, establish and improve a complaint mechanism for foreign-funded enterprises, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign capital. Innovate foreign investment methods and improve the quality of foreign investment. Promote international production capacity cooperation and actively carry out third-party market cooperation.
(4) Actively participate in the reform of the global economic governance system. Maintain and improve the multilateral trading system, maintain the core position of the World Trade Organization in the multilateral trading system, actively promote and participate in WTO reforms, actively participate in multilateral trade rules negotiations, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and promote the establishment of a higher level of International economic and trade rules. Accelerate the construction of free trade zones and promote the establishment of a global high-standard free trade zone network. Relying on the joint construction of the “Belt and Road” initiative and multilateral and regional subregional cooperation mechanisms such as the United Nations, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BRICS, G20, APEC, etc., actively participate in global economic governance and public product supply, and build global interconnection partners Relations and strengthen the connection with economic development initiatives, plans and standards of relevant countries and international organizations. Promote IMF quota and governance reform and World Bank voting rights reform. Actively participate in the communication and coordination of international macroeconomic policies and the reform and construction of the international economic governance system, and put forward more Chinese initiatives and Chinese programs.
8. Improve the legal system of the socialist market economy and strengthen the guarantee of the rule of law
Taking the protection of property rights, maintenance of contracts, unified market, equal exchange, fair competition, and effective supervision as the basic guidance, we constantly improve the socialist market economy legal system to ensure that there are laws that can be followed, laws must be followed, and violations must be investigated.
(1) Improve the system of laws and regulations in the economic field. Improve various property rights related legal systems such as property rights, creditor's rights, equity, etc., and give private property and public property equal status and equal protection from legislation. Improve the bankruptcy system, reform and improve the corporate bankruptcy legal system, promote individual bankruptcy legislation, establish and improve market-oriented exit regulations for financial institutions, and realize the orderly exit of market players. Revise the anti-monopoly law, promote the construction of social credit laws, and maintain a fair competition market environment. Formulate and perfect laws and regulations in development planning, land and space planning, natural resource assets, ecological environment, agriculture, fiscal taxation, finance, foreign-related economic and trade, etc. Promote legislation in the new economic field in accordance with the principle of tolerance and prudence. Improve the special authorization mechanism for major reforms. For major reforms that involve adjustments to existing laws and regulations, according to the statutory procedures and unified authorization by the National People's Congress or the State Council, reform trials and practical innovations will be carried out by qualified localities first.
(2) Improve the guarantee mechanism of law enforcement and judicial administration for the operation of the market economy. Deepen the reform of the administrative law enforcement system, minimize unnecessary administrative law enforcement matters, standardize administrative law enforcement behaviors, and further clarify the specific operational procedures. According to the powers and functions of different levels of government, optimize the deployment of law enforcement forces and accelerate the implementation of comprehensive law enforcement. Strengthen fair judgments on property rights disputes between market entities, and improve the legal system involving acts of seizure, seizure, freezing and disposal of citizens ’property. Improve the effective prevention and normalization correction mechanism for property rights wrong cases.
(3) Establish an administrative power restriction and supervision mechanism in an all-round way. Fully perform government functions in accordance with the law, promote the legalization of institutions, functions, authorities, procedures, and responsibilities, and implement a government power and responsibility list system. Improve major administrative decision-making procedures and systems to improve decision-making quality and efficiency. Strengthen the restriction on the internal power of the government, strengthen the internal process control, and prevent the abuse of power. Improve the audit system and implement full audit coverage of the performance of public funds, state-owned assets, state-owned resources and leading cadres in their economic responsibilities. Strengthen the assessment of financial capacity of major policies and major projects. Promote the reform and establishment of supervision mechanisms in key areas such as examination and approval supervision, law enforcement and justice, engineering construction, resource development, overseas investment and overseas asset supervision, financial credit, public resource transactions, and public fiscal expenditure. Promote government information disclosure in areas such as fiscal budget, public resource allocation, major construction project approval and implementation, and social welfare undertakings in accordance with law.
(4) Improve the development of a market economy supervision system and supervision mechanism. Adhere to and improve the party and state supervision system, strengthen political supervision, strictly restrict public power, and promote the implementation of the main responsibility of the party committee (party group), the responsibility of the first responsible person of the secretary, and the supervision responsibility of the discipline inspection commission. Persevere in advancing the construction of party style and clean government and the fight against corruption, and resolutely investigate and deal with corruption in the fields of resources, land, planning, construction, engineering, and finance in accordance with regulations and disciplines. Improve the system of implementation of the Supervision Law, focus on all links of power operation, reduce power to set up rent-seeking space, resolutely break the network of power and money transactions, realize the continuity of rules and regulations, promote intra-party supervision, supervisory supervision, administrative supervision, judicial Supervision, audit supervision, financial and accounting supervision, statistical supervision, mass supervision, and public opinion supervision work together to promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy.
9. Adhere to and strengthen the overall leadership of the party to ensure the effective implementation of the reform measures
Give full play to the party's core role of taking over the overall situation and coordinating the leadership of all parties, transform the institutional advantages of the party's leadership in economic work into governance effectiveness, strengthen the implementation of reforms and achieve results, and promote the continuous deepening of economic system reforms.
(1) Uphold and strengthen the party's leadership. Further strengthen the "four consciousnesses", strengthen the "four self-confidences", and achieve the "two safeguards", and have a profound understanding of the great significance of accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system from a strategic and overall perspective, and penetrate the party's leadership into deepening the economic system The entire process of reforming and accelerating the improvement of the socialist market economic system runs through various links such as planning reform ideas, formulating reform plans, and advancing reform implementation, to ensure that reforms always move in the right direction.
(2) Improve the reform promotion mechanism. All localities and departments should formulate and complete supporting policies or implement measures in accordance with the requirements of this opinion and their own reality. Starting from the national conditions, insisting on the unification of problem-oriented, goal-oriented and result-oriented, in-depth advancement in accordance with the requirements of system integration, coordination and high efficiency, make full efforts in precise implementation and precise implementation, implement the requirements of the Party Central Committee, meet practical needs, and meet grassroots expectations Unify and overcome formalism and bureaucracy, and focus on implementation in one field after another. Combine top-level design with grass-roots exploration, give full play to grassroots pioneering spirit, and give play to the first-mover role of special economic zones and free trade pilot zones (free trade ports).
(3) Improve the reform incentive mechanism. Improve the positive incentive system for reform, strengthen the employment orientation that dares to take responsibility and overcome difficulties, pay attention to the identification of cadres on the front line of reform, and use those cadres with reform and innovation awareness, courage to reform, and good planning for reform. Consolidate the achievements of party style and clean government construction, and promote the establishment of a pro-Qing political and commercial relationship. Establish and improve the reform fault-tolerance and error-correction mechanism, correctly grasp the nature and influence of cadres' mistakes and errors in reform and innovation, and effectively protect the enthusiasm of cadres and officers for entrepreneurship. Strengthen the summary and promotion of typical cases of reform and the results of reform, and publicize reports, and provide commendation and incentives in accordance with regulations to create a favorable public opinion environment and social atmosphere for reform.
[I want to correct the error] Editor in charge: Li Runfa