Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Regulations on the Operation of the Party School of the Chinese Communist Party and Comparison With the Chinese Academy of Governance

We have been considering the Party School of the Chinese Communist Party.  It plays an essential role in undertaking the political work fo the Party and broadening and deepening its ideological base. 
(Pix (c) Larry Catá Backer)

In considering the operating regulations of the CPC Party School we also sought to distinguish it from the Chinese Academy of Governance (a public servant training institution previously named the China National School of Administration).  It and the Party School are very similar institutions with unique roles under Party State Structure.  Indeed, the separate organization of the two schools--one focused on education in political leadership, and the other focusing on the role of the administrative apparatus of government--reflect the fundamental separation of powers at the heart of the Chinese constitutional system (e.g., Backer, Larry Catá, "Party, People, Government, and State: On Constitutional Values and the Legitimacy of the Chinese State-Party Rule of Law System," Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 30, 2012.

We have included a translation for the Party school regulation rule by Shan Gao, an SJD student at Penn State University. We have also included a comparison chat between the Parrty School and the Academy of Governance, prepared by Shan Gao. The focus of the comparison is on the similarities and differences in administration, funding, education degree program and leadership.  In the process one can better understand the fundamental ordering premises of the construction of the Chinese constitutional state and the way in which those premises are institutionalized and deepened through training.

Regulations on the Operation of Party School of CPC
Effect date: Oct 29, 2008

Note: footnotes of this translation were added by translator. They are not part of the original text and cannot be interpreted as part of the law.

Chapter I: General Provisions

Article 1:

This regulation is formulate to meet the needs of advancing socialist cause with Chinese characteristic, further improve the education system of the Central Party School of CPC and carry forward the works of Party school in a scientific, regulated and systematic manner, based on Constitution of the Communist Party of China, Law of the People’s Republic of China on Public Servants and laws and other regulations, and in light of reality of Party school working experience,

Article 2:

Central Party School of CPC is a critical organization directly under the leadership of Party Committee, which provides training to train organization and party theory leadership. It serves as the main channel of education and training for Party cadres and the Party philosophy and social science research institution.

Party Committee at each level should make Party school serve as the important base of training Party cadres and Party theory personnel; the important base of studying, researching and promoting Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong thought, Deng Xiaoping theory, the Important Thoughts of the Three Represents and Scientific Development Theory; and the soul forge for Party cadres to improve their Party theory.

Article 3:

The Party school’s work should adhere to the principle of linking theory with practice, the principle of keeping pace with the time. Also, it should effectively strength the academic discipline and study atmosphere with strict administration as well as training.

Article 4:

The core requirement for Party school education is

Focuses on the overall interest of Party and State, acts in accordance with the principles of seeking truth from facts, keeping pace with the times, hardworking and working for the public, respects and explores the truth about training and education Party officials. In light of the special needs of training Party officials, the school shall provide trainings centered on the Maxims theories, especially the part of socialism with Chinese characteristic, to train patriotic Party leaders and Party theory experts who are loyal to socialism with Chinese characteristic.

Article 5:

The fundamental tasks of Party school are:

1) Training program to train Party cadres and reserve cadres at all levels, education program to train Party theory cadres;

2) Hosting special seminars for Party Committees and governments;

3) Conduct scientific research on the lasts international and domestic affairs, accepts research projects from Party Committee and government, advancing Party theory.

4) In react to the critical theoretical and practical issues of reforms and socialist modernization, carry out the promotion for the latest theory findings on “Sinicization of Marxism” and Party line and policy.

5) Provide master degree program or other continuing education program in accordance with state law and regulations.

6) Conduct educational communication and cooperation program with domestic and international education, research organizations or institutions.

Article 6:

Improve students’ skills in five areas in accordance with Party school education goal:

1. Master Maxims’ stand, viewpoint and methods, and necessary Maxim’s theory analytical capacity for their position.

2. Great belief in communism; firmly following socialist road with Chinese characteristic and keeping pace with Central CPC.

3. Persist in emancipation of minds, seeking truth from facts, keeping pace with the times and considering the big picture. The student should empathize research and study in their work and skilled at analyzing and resolving big conflicts during the reforms.

4. Insist on the core principles of serving people and work for the public. Improve the manner of self-discipline, hard-working and honest.

5. Strong sense of professionalism and responsibility. Possess the basic knowledge and skills to perform his job and leadership tasks.

Chapter 2 Organizational and leadership structure for Party school

Article 7:

Central Party school is established by Central Party Committee, Local Party schools are established by Party committee of provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and municipality with districts.

The Party Committee of the working committee of bodies under the Central Government, the working committee of the national bodies of the Central Government, Central Financial Organizations[1] and Xinjiang Production and Construction Crops can establish Party school.

The Central and local Party school can establish branches.

The people's government of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government may, according to the actual situation, decide to establish a Party school branch under the people's government at the county level. Otherwise, establish a Party school branch under the people’s government at municipal level.

Article 8:

Party Committee leads and governs Party school, such as:

1) Delivering important decisions of central and upper level Party Committee. Incorporating school works into the overall Party committee and Party constructions working arrangement plans. Regularly study and resolve important issues of Party school reform and development and conduct inspections.

2) Enact Party school training program policy for different levels of Party cadres.

3) Organize and evaluate Party school’s administration group.

4) Establish regular seminal program that invite Party officials to give speech or report to students

5) Serve as think tank for Party Committee or government’s decision process.

6) Work with relevant departments to support the operation of Party school.

7) Conduct regular school working meeting for arranging school works.

Article 9:

The Party school is governed by School administrative affair committee system. The School administrative affair committee will be in full charge of school administration, members of the committee will be appointed by Party Committee in accordance with relative levels. Works of the committee is run by the president or the vise-president who responsible for daily operation of the school affairs.

Article 10:

The president of the Party school is normally served by secretary or deputy secretary of Party committee in accordance with relative levels. The Party school shall have an executive vice-president to take charge of routine work, which should be nominated and selected from officials whose position is equal to a chef leading position in a department of the Party committee at the same level.

Article 11:

The Party school established by the Party Committee at a higher level and such Party Committee shall provide work guidance to the Party school established by lower level Party Committee. Such guidance shall mainly include:

1) Providing guiding opinions on the applications and implementation of the guidelines and polices of the Central Party Committee with regard to the work of Party school;

2) Providing opinions on the improvement in the work such as education and training, scientific research, teacher training, digitalization hardware construction;

3) Formulating the system and measures for scientifically assessing work quality, jointly assessing the work of the Party school established by the Party Committee at a lower level with the relevant department in Party Committee.

4) Party school at Central, provincial, , autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government level providing guidance and coordination in relation to work regarding the compilation of teaching materials, course set-up. Imitation of scientific research projects, cooperation and exchanges etc.; and

5) Conduct routine lower level Party school president meetings. Strengthening exchanges and communication between academies of governance.

Chapter 3 Classes and Degree


The classes of training provided by Party school mainly include in-service training, common training, seminar and training program for teachers. Length of the program varies depends on the actual needs.

Article 13:

Party schools at all levels shall provide training classes for party cadres at all levels based on cadres’ periodic training program.

Central Party school is mainly responsible for the training of Party officials at provincial (ministerial), leading position for the relevant bureau level departments and Party secretary at and county (municipal) level.

Party school established by Party Committee of the Province, automatous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level is mainly responsible for Party officials at deputy positions for the relevant bureau-level departments or county-level or division-level chief leading positions and Party secretary at county or town level.

Party school established by the Party Committee of the municipality with district level shall mainly responsible for the training of Party officials of county-level or division-level deputy leading positions who shall assume the position of a township-level or section-level head.

Party school established by the Party Committee of the district level (city level) shall mainly responsible for the training of Party officials of deputy positions who shall assume the position of a township-level or section-level head.

Article 14:

Party school established by Party Committee above the level of the municipality with district could provide training program for middle and young age Party cadres and competency training programs for other reserve cadres.

Central Party school is mainly responsible for providing training programs for middle and young age Party cadres who serve at bureau-department level and reserve cadres at provincial level.

Party school established by Party Committee of the provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government is mainly responsible for provide training program for reserve Party cadres serve at bureau-department level among other officials who shall assume the position of a township-level or section-level head.

Article 15:

Based on the necessity of Party committee’s (above municipal level) working plan, conduct various special seminars to discuss critical issues in socialist modernization and Party organ construction.

Article 16:

Central Party school and Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level in regions where ethics groups populated could provide special classes solely for ethics groups.

Article 17:

Central Party school and Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level could provide classes solely for Party school lecturers.

Central Party school and Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level could work with relevant agencies to co-host special classes solely for teaching and research specialties in philosophy and social science areas.

Article 18:

Party school shall strengthen the assessment of its trainees. It shall submit information in terms of studying attitude and achievements, party loyalty and compliance with rules and disciplines to the personnel departments of the entities that dispatched the trainees. Such information shall serve as the content of the assessment of the trainees and one of the bases supporting the competency for their position or promotion.

In case of violating school rules or disciplines, depends on the seriousness, give criticism and education or discipline sanctions to the violators.

Article 19:

The Party school degree[2] issued by Party school is a degree proving the academic achievement obtained by a trainee during his or her study in the program. Such trainee shall accomplish his or her learning task according to the education and training plans and obtain his or her degree after passing assessment and examination.

Trainee who failed to attend training programs or failed to accomplish training requirements with cause shall re-attend his or her program. Trainee could obtain his or her degree when he accomplish his training in accordance with program requirements.

Article 20:

Central Party school and other approved Party school[3] at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level shall, in accordance with the law, apply for the right of conferring the degrees of master and doctorate relating to its major disciplines and, upon approval of the education administrative department of the State Council, enroll postgraduate trainees who study for the master or doctorate degrees. Such trainees shall be subject to the national degree management system.

Chapter 4 Training program and Program Schedule

Article 21:

Education and training are the core tasks of an academy of governance and all work of Party school shall serve the goals of accomplishing education and training tasks and improving the level of education and trainings.

Article 22:

The education program shall center on Deng Xiaoping theory, important thought of Three Representatives and Scientific Development; shall improve the leadership skills of Party officials; shall set up great theory foundation for student by training them with the latest theory findings; shall expand students’ global prospective by delivering facts about the international economics and politics; shall particularly training students’ strategy thinking by improving students’ understanding of overall interest under complicated social conditions; shall particularly improve students’ loyalty to the Party by lecturing students’ thinking and behavior. Continuingly expand and innovate education content in accordance with the reality and Party tasks.

Article 23:

Party school’s education program shall establish classes to meet different needs of trainees on different levels.

In order to fully and efficiently taking advantage of Party school resources, Party school shall considering different needs of trainee’s position, arrange educations on Party theory, skill practice and relevant knowledge for domestic politics, diplomatic and national defense.

Special seminar shall concentrate on the Central Party Committee’s critical strategically plans and local Party Committee’s center works.

Article 24:

Partisan Class (Party loyalty class) is mandatory in the Party school. The Party school shall focus on the Partisan education by applying Maxims theory to the practice and transforming person’s minds as well as the reality word; shall force on improve party cadres’ outlook and belief. The Partisan class shall carry on during the process of the training.

Article 25:

Party school shall adhere to the principles of linking theory with practice and integration of study with practical application, constantly innovating methodology, and promoting research-based teaching. Teaching methods based on lectures, research, interaction, case, experience, simulation etc. shall be comprehensively applied to stimulate the enthusiasm of teachers and trainees and encourage each other for better performance.

Article 26:

Party school shall improve the management of education, shall establish and improve the management system, thereby creating a teaching operation mechanism characterized by definite responsibilities, clear division of work and cooperation and establishing and improving the system for assessing and appraising teaching performance.

Article 27:

Course set-up is the foundation of improving the quality of education, scientific research and teachers. The course set-up shall focus on the needs of training Party cadres and Maxim theory experts; shall focus on creating Maxims theory with Chinese characteristics that gradually and systematically fit the trend of domestic and international theory development.

Article 28:

Central Party school and Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Central Government level shall establish course set-up plan; shall improve cooperation for the course set-up.

Article 29:

Teaching material is a fundamental part of Party school education. The teaching material shall fully represent the latest theories on “Maxim Sinicization” with the features that meet the education program requirement of Party school.

Article 30:
Party school shall focus on the quality of Master degree education in accordance with state education standard. Central Party school shall provide guidance and management for Party school system’s master degree program and establish degree evaluation working standard system. The master degree program shall accept supervisions and evaluations from education administrative department of the State Council and other agencies in accordance with the law.

Article 31:

Digital and information are modern technology, which shall play important role in improving the quality of education program. Party school at each level shall improve and accurate the path of applying such technology.

Chapter 5 Scientific Research

Article 32:

Scientific Research is the foundation of the Party school education programs. The research projects shall focus on the development of domestic and international society; shall focus on the issues rooted in socialist China’s society; shall deepening the theory of socialist China; shall work for the Party theory innovation, education quality, Party Committee and government’s advisory, social economy, political, culture and Party construction.

Article 33:

The scientific research project shall applying Party line, policy, theory and experience in their work. The research project shall correctly apply hundred flower campaigns; persist in emancipation of minds, seeking truth from facts and keeping pace with the times, attach importance to linking theory with practice; and promote innovation in theory and practice.

Article 34:

Party school’s research project shall open to the society and increase the cooperation with advisory and working departments in higher education, scientific research institutions and other domestic and international institutions; shall construct open research management system and research system.

Article 35:

Improve cooperation between the Party schools and take full advantage of Party school’s system. Central Party school shall regularly evaluate research projects and rewards project findings. Party school at all levels shall design their research plans and carefully execute them.

Article 36:

The Central Party School and local Party school shall establish Deng Xiaoping theory and important thoughts of Three Representatives research center and make it play significant role in Party research work. The research center shall organize Party school and other social resources to promote socialist China theory and scientific development.

Article 37:

Party school shall strengthen the construction of library and digitalization of its library. Central Party school and Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government level shall serve as modern and multi-function documentation center.

Article 38:

In publishing newspaper and periodicals, the Party school shall serve as the frontier of promoting “Sinicization of Marxism;” shall persist the correct political orientation, promoting academic thinking and trying to serve for the Party school education as well as Party theory innovation.

Article 39:

Trainee management (student management)is a critical process for achieving the Party school education goal. Such management shall on the basis of placing people first, conducting strict management, improving the system and emphasizing on practical results, improve the measures for scientific and regulatory management of its trainees and the level of scientific management.

Article 40:

Trainee management includes ideological and political education, leaning management, organizational management, student life management. Leaning management shall stimulate trainees’ enthusiasm for better education quality. Organizational management shall improve and strengthen the school enrollment system, class registration system, discipline and rules. Trainees’ life management shall promote the principle of hardworking, order and duty, it shall provide cultural and sports activities to diversify students’ life and improve students’ healthy.

Article 41:
Party school shall equip each class with a full-time class advisor or class director to management the class. Appropriate level of advisors shall be appointed in accordance with the requirement of different trainees.

Article 42:
Student (Trainee) Party branch shall be established in each Party school class, which under the leadership of Party school committee and advisor of trainee management departments[4].

Article 43:

All Party Committee Organization departments, entities that dispatch trainees and Party school shall work together to form a strict management and supervising system for trainees.

Chapter 7 Building of Party School Working Team

Article 44:

Party school working team is the foundation for Party school’s development. Party schools shall build a qualified working team with reasonable size and structure that could satisfying the needs and necessity of new generation’s Party school’s education program, scientific research, administrative management and logistic service.

Article 45:

Teachers are the key of working team. To build a high quality teaching and research team with strong background of political theory, good understanding of his profession, and high moral ideology, the school shall design and implement education plan. The Party school teacher and researchers shall:

1) Have strong faith and belief in communism and socialist with Chinese characteristics. Loyalty to Marxism and passion to Party school education. Diligently abide Party political rules and always follow Central Party Committee.

2) Have solid theoretical knowledge of Marxism. Be familiar with Party line, principles and rules. Spirit of theoretical innovation and practical skills of research and explore important theoretical and practical real life issues.

3) Focus on the investigation and summary past experience. Applying theory into the education work.

4) Ethical cultivation and professional sentiment, excel in virtue, and be a model of virtue for students.

Article 46:

Focus on the development of Party school teacher and researcher working team by improving the system of in-service training, practice, promotion and evaluation.

Article 47:

With respect to staff members of Party school who are subject to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Public Servants, their personnel management shall be governed by laws, regulations and policies relating to the administration of public servants; if staff members are not subject to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Public Servants, their personnel managements shall be governed by the personnel management system of the institution. Teachers of Party school shall enjoy relevant benefits in accordance with the provisions of the State.

Article 48:

Party school shall set up positions and employment requirement in accordance with state regulations, keep the standard of evaluation by continuing perfect evaluation system and procedural.

Article 49:

All Party Committees shall support and assist Patty school select talents to build working team, and establish system for the external talent position exchange program. All personnel department of entities shall provide conveniences for Party school hire talents.

Chapter 8 Institutional Party Branch’s Work

Article 50:

Party school shall establish internal institutional Party branch. Such Party branch shall operate under the leadership of upper level party committee and Party school Committee to manage the construction of Party school’s Party theory, organization, moral and behavior, system and anti-corruption work; and to assist administrative leader, teachers, researchers and logistic service’s work.

Party school shall normally establish Discipline and Inspection Committee for institutional party branch. In case there is no Discipline and Inspection Committee been set up, the institutional party branch at primary level shall establish Discipline and Inspection Committee.

Article 51:

The party secretary of institutional party branch could be concurrently served by administrative leader or served by party cadre full-time. In case where more Party members or more entities involved in such party branch, it is necessary to set up a full-time deputy party secretary. The transfer of full-time party secretary or deputy secretary shall be approved by upper level party committee in advance.

Article 52:

Party branches at all levels in the Party school shall diligently fulfill their responsibilities in accordance with the Party Constitution and other relevant regulations to improve the work of institutional party branch.

Chapter 9: Administrative management, logistic service and guarantee of school founding

Article 53:

Administrative management and logistic service are the important guarantee for the works of Party education and research programs. Party school shall establish regulations and working system for administrative management and logistic service. In order to improve the quality of management, take necessary reforms.

Article 54:

The expenditures necessary for the operation of Party school shall be included in the annual budget of the people’s government in accordance with the relevant level. Such founding shall increase in accordance with the increasing of government income in order to meet the needs of school education, research programs and other administrative expenditures[5].

Article 55:

Party Committee and government shall focus on the construction of Party school’s education facility and increase the funds for basic construction in order to meet the education and research needs. They shall also making effort to improve the study, working, living conditions and employee benefits for trainees and teachers. Party Committee and government shall also promote the principle of hard working and anti-waste spirit.

Article 56:

Trainee’s salary and employee benefits shall remained same during the Party school education program. The entity dispatch trainees shall responsible for their living grants.

Chapter 10 enforcement and supervision

Article 57:

All Party Committees, governments and their relevant departments, all Party school, all trainees and entities dispatch them shall strictly enforce this regulation and accept supervisions from Party organization, masses and society.

Article 58:

All Party Committees shall conduct supervision and inspection to exam the enforcement of this regulation. Under uniform direction and cooperation from the Party Committee, upper level Party Committee and Party school conduct regular inspection on the lower level Party Committee and Party school. Criticisms and advices shall be offered when there are violations of this regulation.

Chapter 11 Supplementary Provisions

Article 59:

Government and municipal Party Committee at deputy provincial level shall follow this regulation.

Article 60:

This regulation shall take effect on the date of promulgation. On the same day the 1995 Interim Regulations on the operation of Party school shall simultaneously be invalidated.


[1] Mainly includes China Central Bank, China Banking Regulatory Commission, The China Securities Regulatory Commission, and the China INSURANCE Regulatory Commission.

[2] Some Party school degree is approved by Department of Education, one thing can’t ignore is the fact that many high profile state or party officials obtained their degrees from Party school. Details see article 20.

[3] In comparison with state employee training institution Academy of Governance, only the Chinese Academy of Governance has the authority of providing master or doctor degree education program.

[4] In comparison with Academy of Governance, the Academy of Governance is not requiring setting up Party branch.

[5] In comparison with Party school, the Academy of Governance gain founding from government but the relevant rule did not guarantee Academy of Governance the benefit of enjoying founding increase in accordance with local government’s income increase.


Differences between Party school and Academy of Governance
Shan Gao

In the process of translating Regulations on the operation of Party School, I encountered the Regulations on the operation of Academy of Governance. Although the two documents had many similar expressions and rules regarding the regulations of the operation of the school, the two schools are different in nature. 

Under Party-State structure, Party School is designed for Party cadres while Academy of Governance is designed for State cadres. Both schools are providing doctor and master degree programs. As you may read from the bio of some Chinese high profile officials, they obtained their degrees from either one of these two institutions. Xi jinping, the paramount leader of China had once served as the president of CPC Central Party School[1]. The President of Central Party School of CPC is Liu yunshan, who also serves as Party Propaganda department’ head and the Politburo members.  Disregard many similarities in their operation rule (you can find a English translation by Westlaw China in their database), the two schools had very different educational goals, programs, administrations and etc.

Here is a part of excerpt from the English website of Chinese Academy of Governance:

 (Pix: the English website of Chinese Academy of Governance[2])

Chinese Academy of Governance (previously named China National School of Administration) was born in the surging tide of reform and opening up, and it constantly developed as the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics progressed. It was decided at the Thirteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC­) in 1987 and at the First Session of the National People’s Congress in1988 to create a national civil service system and establish the Chinese Academy of Governance. Preparatory work on the academy began in 1988, and it was formally established in 1994. The CPC Central Committee and the State Council closely followed the construction and development of the Chinese Academy of Governance. 

 (Pix: Central Party School of CPC holding special seminar study Xi’s speech for Provincial Party cadre[3])
 Unlike Academy of Governance provided many MPA related seminars, Central Party School always hold special seminar study Party officials’ latest speech and other Party policy, theory, or state law related topics.

Below is a brief summary that comparing the difference between two schools:

Party school
Academy of Governance
Nature of the entity
Think tank for the Party and training school for party cadre, serve as a department under Party Committee.

Training school for the public servant and think tank for the government, serve as an organization directly subordinate to the government.
Party cadres of all Party Committees, Party branches

Public servant, administrator of state owned enterprises, scholars of public affairs, Party Committee.

Central Party Committee and Party Committee at provincial, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under Center Government level and Xinjiang Production and Construction Crops,

State Council, government at provincial, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under Center Government level, Xinjiang Production and Construction Crops
Leadership of administration 
Applying Party School Affair Committee (SAC) system, the deputy or secretary of Party Committee concurrently serve as the president of Party school, the SAC member and other high officials are appointed by local Party Committee at relevant level
Leaders of local government concurrently serve as the president of the school. Other high officials are appointed by local government.
Doctor and master degree Education program
After approving process, Center Party School and approved Party school at provincial, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under Center Government level
Only Chinese Academy of Governance (Established by State Council) after approving process can provide such degrees
Obtained from government AND Party Committee
Only from government budget

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