Monday, April 25, 2011

Anuar Sarmantay on International Strategic Partnerships of Kazakhstan

From time to time I like to showcase some of the current work of my graduate students.  For this post I include a paper written by Anuar Sarmantay, a graduate student at the Penn State School of International Affairs  The paper is particularly interesting for those who follow law and politics in Central Asia.  The dominant perspective from that region is usually that of one of the intervening powers--Russia, the United States, and China.  It is refreshing to consider the issues of strategic relations from insider a "recipient player" in the region.   Consider both the language and its content in reading through this fascinating essay.
 (Penn State School of International Affairs)


International Strategic partnerships
Of the Republic of Kazakhstan:
A Comparative Analysis


1.     Cooperation with the People's Republic of China
2.     Cooperation with the Republic of Turkey
3.     Cooperation with  the United States of America

Current Analysis

 Comparative Analysis and Future Trends

1.     Cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the People's Republic of China

Today the distinctive feature of the Sino-Kazakh relations on a modern stage is a possession of an accurate systemic foundation for realization of the agreements made between China and Kazakhstan. A long-term, stable development of a strategic partnership between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is guaranteed by the Joint Declaration on the Establishment and Development of the Strategic Partnership (July 4, 2005), the Treaty of Friendship, Neighborliness and Co-operation (December 23, 2002), the Agreement on the Creation of Co-operation Committee (July 2, 2004), the Cooperation Strategy in the 21st Century (December 20, 2006), and the Concept of the Development of Economic Cooperation (December 20, 2006).
The diplomatic relations between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the People's Republic of China (PRC) were established on January 3, 1992.
Apart from the Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Beijing (Active since December 1992), there is also a Consulate General of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Hong Kong (active since August 2003) and Shanghai (active since May 2005), as well as the Passport and visa service in Urumqi (active since 1995 without a status of a consulate establishment).
In Kazakhstan as well, apart from the Embassy of the PRC in Astana, the Consulate General of the PRC has been functioning in Almaty since August 2007.
Today, based on gained experience of cooperation the relations between the two countries continue to demonstrate their progressing force. Regular contacts on the head of state level and the high level of government play an important role in these relations.
Visits of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to the PRC:
Official visit (18-21 October 1993); State visit (11-13 September 1995); Official visit (23-27 November 1999); State visit (22-25 December 2002); State visit (16-19 May 2004); Working visit (24-25 September 2004); State visit (19-22 December 2006); Working visit (7-10 August 2008 within the framework of participation in the opening ceremony of the 29th Summer Olympic games).
15-19 April, 2009 the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev went to the PRC with a state visit combined with his participation in the annual conference of the Boao Forum for Asia.
During his visit the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev has held negotiations with the President of the PRC Hu Jintao, had a meeting with the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Wu Bangguo and the Premier of the State Council Wen Jiabao.
An outcome of the negotiations was the signing of a Joint Declaration of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the President of the PRC. There were also a number of intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements and memorandums on cooperation in the fields of energy, agriculture and education that were adopted in presence of the two heads of states.
Visits of the heads of state of the PRC to the Republic of Kazakhstan:
4-6 June, 1996 – a state visit of the President of the PRC Jiang Zemin; 4th of July 1998 – working visit of the President of the PRC Jiang Zemin; 27-30 July, 2000 – an official visit of the President of the PRC Jiang Zemin; 2-4 June, 2003 - a state visit of the President of the PRC Hu Jintao; 3-4 July, 2005 - a state visit of the President of the PRC Hu Jintao, 29-30 June, 2010 - a official visit of the President of the PRC Hu Jintao.
17-18 August, 2007 the President of the PRC Hu Jintao went to Kazakhstan with a state visit. The President’s visit resulted in the signing of a Joint Communiqué and the adoption of cooperation in a non-primary economic sector Programme. The Ministries of Foreign Affairs of the two countries have exchanged notes on the establishment of a Consulate General of the PRC in Almaty.
Trade and economic cooperation plays a leading role in the promotion of all spectrums of mutual relations of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the PRC. China was the first major world economic power to support Kazakhstan’s accession into the World Trade Organization.
Kazakhstan is one of the largest trading partners of the PRC in Central Asia and Eastern Europe, second only to Russia. In 2008 the two-way trade between Kazakhstan and the PRC amounted to 12,24 billion USD. From January-August 2009 the two-way trade amounted to 6,02 billion USD (Export- 3,435 billion USD, Import – 2,585 billion USD).
The Atasu-Alashankou oil pipeline, which was completed recently, is of great strategic value to Kazakhstan, as it allows Kazakhstan not only to diversify its oil export routes, but it also to utilize its transit potential in a fuller way.
Today the mutual cooperation between Kazakhstan and China is entering a new stage. Interaction in a non-primary sector is widening. In this regard the two sides signed a Cooperation Program in the non-primary sectors of economies in 2007. The purpose of the program is the development of cooperation in order to achieve rational diversification of the two-way trade. In April 2008 the Plan of events for the Cooperation Program in the non-primary sectors of economies was accepted.
Work on the development of the normative basis of cooperation within the framework of the Joint Commissions on Utilization and Security of the Cross-Border Rivers continues.
Especially significant events of the mutual cooperation in the cultural and humanitarian spheres became the celebration of the 150th Anniversary of Abai Kunanbaev in Beijing (1995), the Days of Culture of Kazakhstan in China (2001), the Days of Culture of China in Kazakhstan (2002), the Chinese Science and Technology Exhibition in Almaty (2002), the Days of Culture of Almaty in Shanghai (2004), The Days of Culture of Shanghai in Almaty (August 2005), the Days of Culture of Kazakhstan in China (October 2007). In June 2008 the celebration of the Days of Culture of the Chunqin city (the Sichuan Province of the PRC) took place within the framework of the celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the Capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
At the present moment the work on mutual establishment of the Cultural Centers is conducted. The Institute of Confucius has already been opened in Kazakhstan.
An exchange of students is carried out each year in accordance with an intergovernmental agreement between Kazakhstan and China. The institutions of higher education of the two countries have established direct links with one another. At the present moment the number of Kazakh students studying in China is more than 3000 people.

2.     Cooperation between Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Turkey

Dynamics of development of the Kazakh-Turkish relations based on a generality of historical and cultural roots of two nations and coincidence of interests of two states on many questions of the international and regional life, allow us to speak about strategic character of partnership between states. Turkey recognizes leading role of Kazakhstan in the Central Asia and considers our country as the most important partner in the region. The considerable contribution to development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Turkey is brought, first of all, by high intensity of contacts, especially at the high levels. The important impulse has given to bilateral interaction by official visit of President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to Turkey on May 21-23, 2003. Within the visit the intergovernmental long-term agreement on trade and economic cooperation has been signed.
Within the official visit of Prime-minister of Turkey R. Erdogan to Kazakhstan on May 26-27, 2005 business forum was organized with participation of businessmen of two country and a number of governmental and interdepartmental agreements on cooperation in the field of struggle against the international terrorism, the organized crime, drug trafficking, archival business and statistics was signed.
In the meeting of President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev with Prime minister of Turkey R. Erdogan in Antalya on May 18th, 2006 questions of bilateral cooperation was discussed, including 2nd Summit of Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) which has taken place in Almaty, opening ceremony of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline in Ceyhan, the next Summit of heads of Turkish language states. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey A. Gul has taken part in 2nd Summit of Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia.
Dynamics of development of mutual relations was positively affected also by official visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan M. Tazhin to Ankara on April 4-5, 2007 in which meetings with President A. N. Sezer, the Prime-minister R. T. Erdogan and Minister for Foreign Affairs A. Gul was organized. During meeting with the Head of foreign policy department A. Gul realizations reached before have been summed up and prospects of bilateral cooperation on trade, economics, energy, investment and military-technical spheres was considered. Special value has been given to energy cooperation, in particular deliveries of the Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials through the route Aktau-Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan, joint participation in project of building of Samsun-Ceyhan oil pipeline, and also building of oil refining factory in port Ceyhan.
On September 30th, 2007 President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev has visited Turkey with working visit. In Ankara the Head of the State has met with the President of Turkey  A. Gul and has congratulated his colleague by his new post. At the meeting prospects of the further development of bilateral cooperation have been discussed. The Turkish side has highly appreciated visit of Head of Kazakhstan as the first visit to Turkey on high level after election of 11th president.
On December 13th, 2007 the visit of the President of Turkey A. Gul to Kazakhstan has taken place. During meeting of the presidents questions of bilateral trade and economic cooperation such as development of energy and transport communication have been discussed. The program for long-term economic cooperation between the governments of Kazakhstan and Turkey have been signed and the plan of measures on realization of the specified program for 2008-2009. In particular, it was noticed that building of oil refining factory in port Ceyhan will give the big impulse to energy cooperation, in which national oil and gas company "KazMunayGas" intends to participate. Besides, building of the railway Kars-Tbilisi-Baku has great value for trade development in region.
Cooperation between Kazakhstan and Turkey is also successfully developing in the areas such as UN, Economic Cooperation Organization, Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia and Summit of heads of Turkish language states.
On November 17th, 2006 in Antalya VIII Summit of heads of Turkish language states has taken place, with participation of presidents of Kazakhstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan. As the results of summit the Antalya Declaration was signed. In the Declaration necessity of strengthening of economic and transport communications between the Turkic countries was noted and importance of joint struggle against terrorism, distributions of weapons of mass destruction, contraband of drugs, weapons smuggling, a human trade and other kinds of the organized crime was underlined. A Creation of Parliamentary Assembly Turkish language state was initiated by president of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev and has been positively apprehended by Turkey.
On September 9th, 2008 in Antalya the informal meeting between President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev and President of Turkey A. Gul has taken place. During meeting dynamically developing relations between two states and political affinity on prominent aspects of bilateral cooperation has noted. In turn A. Gul has expressed his satisfaction with development of political, economic and cultural-humanitarian relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey. At a meeting of heads of two states the necessity of activation of work of the Summit of heads of Turkish language states also has been underlined. In this connection it is noticed that creation of Constant Secretary of the Summits of heads of Turkish language states should be included in to the agenda of the next Summit of heads of Turkish language states planned to carry out in Baku. Along with other questions, leaders of the states have exchanged opinions on necessity of the prompt signing of the Agreement on Parliamentary assembly of Turkish language states.
Whole mutual visits show increasing dynamics of mutual relations of two countries on all ways of bilateral and multilateral cooperation and formation of mutually advantageous partnership on a number of directions.
Consultations are adjusted on various questions of the international relations and bilateral cooperation between foreign policy departments of two countries. During consultations parties mark similarity of positions on many actual regional and a world policy problems, and also mutual support of initiatives.
Dynamical development of trade and economic relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey proceeds. Turkey is one of the important trade and economic partners of Kazakhstan. According to Turkish Agency on foreign trade, the volume of Turkish export to Kazakhstan in January-July, 2009 has made 604, 3 million dollars of USA that is 63,6% less than the similar period of 2008 and import – 339,756 million dollars of USA with reduction by 37,1%. Despite change of a situation in the foreign trade turnover with Turkey in favor of Kazakhstan, the commodity nomenclature of export and import of Kazakhstan remains invariable. The structure of the Kazakhstan’s export is characterized by mainly raw materials (wheat, oil, gas, coal, metal rolling etc.) while the basic component of Turkish export to our country are the final goods (textiles, building materials, production of chemical manufacture, etc.).
The effective mechanism of expansion of bilateral trade and economic relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey is the Intergovernmental Kazakh-Turkish economic commission, 5th session of which has passed on May 5-6, 2008 in Ankara. At the session the arrangement in the field of building and opening of Kazakhstan-Turkey Park in 2008 in Astana has been reached. Before parties had reached agreements on cooperation in the field of public health services, work and social protection, contract and consulting services, tourism and sports, agriculture, energy and transport. The parties also have agreed to give technical support and to organize training programs for experts in such areas as agriculture, bank sphere, insurance, tax and trade system within the frameworks of the program which will be defined by corresponding bodies of the parties.
In the current year the next session of Intergovernmental Kazakh-Turkish economic commission is planning to be organized in Astana. Now terms of its carrying out are studied.
In Kazakhstan there are 1674 operating enterprises with participation of the Turkish capital. The given enterprises basically operate in the spheres of wholesale and retail trade, building and sphere of services. At the same time, in the market of Kazakhstan there are such large Turkish companies, as “Ram Dis Ticaret”, a part of financial and industrial group “Koc Holding”, and also “Anadolu Grubu”, “Enka Holding”, “Tekfen Holding”, “Alarko Holding”, “Ceylan Insaat”, “Ahsel”, and “Okan Holding”.
Perspective cooperation is represented in the field of agriculture, industry, trade, in the sphere of development of small and medium business. On 10-15 February 2008 interdepartmental delegation of Kazakhstan visited Bursa, Istanbul, Corlu and Denizli for presentation of textile cluster of “Ontustik” special economic zone. Within the frameworks of a trip meetings with a management of the central and local executive powers, commercial and industrial chambers and associations of businessmen, businessmen, are organized for presentation of textile cluster.
Since 2006 powersupply sphere develops dynamically, showing much more results in comparison with other directions of mutual relations. Turkey gives great value to a question of transportation of the Kazakhstan power resources through her territory on the world markets. On July 13h, 2006 was official opening ceremony of an oil pipeline of Baku-Tbilisi-Cehan.  The given project also has great value for Ankara, as well as an oil pipeline of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and the project of an oil pipeline Samsun-Ceyhan which realisation is begun by joint efforts of the company «Calik Enerji», Italian «ENI» and Indian «Indian Oil». In August of 2008 in Kazakhstan the representatives of the company «Calik Enerji» have held meetings with representatives of a management of KazMunayGaz, JSC” national company in which course projects of possible cooperation of the parties were discussed.
Also bilateral cooperation proceeds in the transportation sphere, making direct impact on increase in volume of mutual trade. During July 23-25, 2009 the session of the Commission concerning the international automobile transportations has been held in Astana. Following the results of which at the initiative of a Turkish side the arrangement on an establishment of a quota of an exchange of blanks of permissions to the international automobile cargo transportations for 2008 in number of 6000 pieces and 1000 forms of permissions in (from) the third countries is reached.
The need of activization of cooperation for the given sphere has been underlined during meetings of presidents of Kazakhstan and Turkey. In particular, following projects are given a strategic value: the East-West railway and support of this project by Kazakhstan; expediency of involvement in the project of port Aktau within the limits of a railway direction South-East Asia – China Kazakhstan – port Aktau – ports of Georgia – Turkey – Europe and necessity of the prompt start of a container trains communication by Istanbul-Almaty route with the decision of questions of tariffs and the train diagramme of a train within the limits of Organization of economic cooperation; building of a Kars-Ahalkalaki-Tbilisi-Baku railroad line within the limits of creation of a new transit railway corridor.
Active cooperation in investments sphere develops. The number of companies from Kazakhstan, working in Turkey, has reached 150, and volume of Kazakhstan’s investments into Turkey reached 4 billion US dollars.
In the field of military and military-technical cooperation several directions are covered: the organisation of mutual visits for the purpose of opinion exchange on various issues, cooperation within the limits of the NATOPartnership for peace” program, cooperation in the field of the defense industry, providing of the military assistance to the Armed Forces of Kazakhstan, training of the Kazakh military servicemen in Turkey and Kazakhstan (mostly for Special Forces).
The important sphere of cooperation is the education of Kazakh military personnel in military educational establishments of Turkey. Annually in Turkish military schools (military lycées, military colleges and academies) about 35-40 military servicemen from Kazakhstan are trained. Besides, 5-6 Kazakhstan military men every year participate in short-term courses in the NATO Partnership for peace” center in Ankara.
Notable results were brought by cooperation of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan with ASELSAN company, the leading company of Turkish defense industry, that begun in previous years. In May 2008 the representatives of ASELSAN Company have taken part at arms exhibition in the Republic of Kazakhstan. As a result of the signed contract the complete set (servers, personal computers, radio stations, special software) of the educational center of the Command and control system (C4I) has been delivered to the Military institute of radio electronics and communication (in Almaty).
Cooperation of two countries in the field of military-technical cooperation brings a mutual interest. So, the Turkish side is interested in cooperation with the enterprises of defense industry of Kazakhstan that has experience of working out and manufacture of various types of weapons during the Soviet period and continuing such a work now. E.g. the Turkish company “STM” (Savunma Teknolojileri Muhendislik), associated with the Ministry of national defense of the Republic of Turkey, and offers the establishment of joint venture with Kazakhstan’s “KirovMashZavod” factory (in Almaty) on designing and manufacturing of “The Turkish national torpedo” for the Turkish Naval Forces.
Bilateral cooperation becomes more active in cultural-humanitarian sphere too. The special attention in expansion of cultural-humanitarian cooperation is given to participation of representatives of sides in cultural events, continuation of practice of an exchange by delegations of artists, development of brotherhood connections between cities and regions of two countries.
It is necessary to note one of the important directions in the given sphere – 24th session of Permanent council of Ministers of culture of Turkic-speaking states (TURKSOY) that was arranged on May 27-28, 2008 in Ankara. Representatives of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Turkmenistan have taken part in the work of the given session, and also Turkic-speaking nationalities of Altai, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Tyva, Sakha-Yakutiya, Khakassiya (parts of the Russian Federation) and Gagauz Yeri (part of the Republic of Moldova).
In a sphere of education a vivid example of successful interaction is functioning of the international Kazakh-Turkish university of H. A. Yasavi in the city of Turkestan, S.Demirel private university in Almaty, Zhambyl registration-credit-economic college, 24 Kazakh-Turkish Lycées, the Dostyk educational center, the Shahlan elementary school (where children of Turkish citizens living and working in Kazakhstan are trained). Also on May 21, 2003 during official visit of N.Nazarbayev, the President of Kazakhstan, to Turkey the Abay school has been opened in Istanbul.
The process of support of Kazakh students trained in leading Turkish universities and of Kazakh diaspora living in Turkey proceeds. Till now 1500 citizens of Kazakhstan have finished Turkish universities, 453 people continue training (283 – toward a bachelor degree, 129 – at a master level, 41 – postgraduate study).
One of the main events in cultural cooperation was the official ceremony of opening of the joint clinical and diagnostical medical center at H. A. Yasavi International Kazakh-Turkish University in the city of Turkestan on the end of March 2010.

3.     Cooperation of the Republic of Kazakhstan with the United States of America

Between Kazakhstan and the United States of America strategic partnership, which is characterized by the wide range and deep level of cooperation, and solid contract-legal base was established.
Aspiration to develop all-round cooperation with Kazakhstan was confirmed during the visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to Washington on September 26-29, 2006. In the course of the visit the leaders of two states adopted Joint Statement, which defines future trends of Kazakhstan-American relations – strengthening strategic partnership by intensifying strategic dialogues on energy, military cooperation, trade, investment and democratization processes.
The US intends to continue assistance in creation and development of scientific, material and technical basis in applying the former USSR military potential in WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) field into science, agriculture and healthcare of Kazakhstan.
On November 19, 2008 by American side’s initiative the phone conversation between the President of Kazakhstan Nazarbayev and the US President-elect Obama took place. During the conversation the Heads of the States discussed current condition and future prospects of the bilateral strategic partnership.
On April 7, 2009 during the II Forum of the Alliance of Civilizations in Istanbul the Chairman of the Senate of the Republic of Kazakhstan K.Tokayev met with the US President B.Obama. The American leader was informed about Kazakhstan’s initiative to place International Nuclear Fuel Bank in its territory to use it in peaceful purposes under the IAEA control. In addition, during the meeting K.Tokayev passed on to President Obama the invitation of President Nazarbayev to visit Kazakhstan.
President Obama noted that relations with Kazakhstan are of strategic importance. The US leader also said that he was planning to tour our region, and, firstly, he would visit Kazakhstan – a friend and reliable partner of the United States.
On May 3-5, 2009 Minister of foreign affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan M.Tazhin paid a work visit to Washington. Within the visit he met with State Secretary Clinton, the US National Security Advisor Jones and Energy Secretary Chu. During the meetings parties discussed a broad range of bilateral and regional issues of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the United States, including non-proliferation, situation in Afghanistan, economic and energy cooperation. Minister M.Tazhin also gave a speech in the US research center “Council on Foreign Relations”.
On July 9-10, 2009 the American delegation led by US Under Secretary of State for political affairs William J. Burns visited Astana. During the visit the delegation met with President N. Nazarbayev, Prime-Minister K. Massimov, and Minister M. Tazhin. The US delegation informed Kazakhstan’s side of the results of President Obama’s recent visit to Russian Federation (July 6-8, 2009), particularly of the meeting with President Medvedev. Moreover, the issues of bilateral relations, regional security, non-proliferation and other matters of mutual interests were discussed.
The interaction with the US Congress has moved to a high level. In 2008 under the chairmanship of Congresswoman Berkley and Congressman Aderholt the caucus (informal initiative group) of Kazakhstan’s friends was created.
From June 27 to July 1, 2008 delegation of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (U.S. Helsinki Commission) headed by Senator Hastings visited Kazakhstan in order to participate in the 17th Session of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Parliamentary Assembly.
On August 7–8, 2008, representative delegation of the US Senate headed by the leader of Democratic majority Senator Reed paid a visit to Kazakhstan.
On July 2–4, 2009, the US Congress delegation led by the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment of the US Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs E. Faleomavaega visited Kazakhstan. They had meetings with the Head of State, Chairman of the Senate of the Republic of Kazakhstan, State Secretary and Minister of Foreign Affairs.
The United States of America are one of the largest trade partners of Kazakhstan. In the result of the first 5 months of 2009 the volume of trade between Kazakhstan and the US amounts to USD 626,3 million (of which export – USD 132,5 million, and import – USD 493.8 million), which is equivalent to 3,3% of general goods turnover of Kazakhstan. For the similar period of time last year the volume of trade amounted to USD 978,9 million (export – USD 260,7 million, import – USD 718,3 million) or 2,4% of general goods turnover. Decrease of the volume of trade amounted to USD 352,6 million or 36% that became the result of the influence of world economic crisis.
Increase in commodity circulation ratio from the USA in the structure of general goods turnover of Kazakhstan with other countries is the positive tendency.
In trade and economic cooperation with the USA, the emphasis is made on attraction of the American investments to Kazakhstan that promotes stable and progressive development of the country on long-term prospect. For the period since 1993 until June 2008, the total inflow of foreign direct investments (FDI) from the USA to Kazakhstan made USD 16, 82 billion. In the first half of 2008 there was USD 819, 6 million gross profit of FDI from the USA to Kazakhstan, which was 4, 61% higher than the first half of 2007.
More than 350 enterprises are operating in Kazakhstan with the participation of American capital. Generally, the enterprises are preoccupied in the  spheres of crude oil and passing gas productions, construction, pharmaceutical goods trade, hotel services, transport-expedition services, geological research and investigation (without scientific research and development) etc.
Leading positions in Kazakhstan’s market are held by such American companies as «Chevron Texaco», «Exxon Mobil», «ConocoPhillips», and «Oryx/Kerr-McGee». The presence of American companies is practically seen in all large projects such as joint venture "Tenghizshevroil", «AGIP KCO», «Caspian pipeline consortium», «Karachaganak Integrated Organization», etc.
Since March 2002 Kazakhstan-American Special commission on partnership in the field of energy has been functioning (later it was renamed into the Joint Kazakh-American Commission on energy partnership). In total, there were five sessions where issues of mutual cooperation were considered within the limits of four working groups (oil-and-gas sector; electric energy; atomic energy, nuclear technologies and issues of non-proliferation; preservation of environment).
On June 24, 2008 the new Kazakhstan-American public-private economic partnership program was launched. Its goal is to create the platform for interaction between private sectors and the state bodies of both states. 
Since 2008 cooperation at inter-regional level has been developing actively. The start to such cooperation was given by the visit of the delegation of Manghistau oblast to the state of Louisiana (on October 29-31, 2008), which is one of the main oil industry centres of the United States.
In 2009 cooperation between Almaty and Denver cities (the state of Colorado) is planned to be arranged.
Cooperation in the spheres of defense and security envisages realization of a number of arrangements supporting military reforms in Kazakhstan. Within the IMET and FMF programs training of Kazakhstan’s soldiers in Kazakhstan and the United States and equipping different subdivisions of Kazakhstan’s armed forces with American equipment have been carrying out. The functioning of the programs on border protection and combating extremism is continuing.
On February 1, 2008 during the visit of US Assistant Secretary of Defense M.Shivers, Five-year military cooperation plan (2008-2012) between Kazakhstan and the United States was signed.

Current Analysis

Kazakh-Chinese relations have been developed through the path from a predominantly economic and trade contacts to reach the level of strategic partnership. Besides, Kazakhstan is the only state in Central Asia, with China at this level.
Since independence of Kazakhstan, China has sought, using this opportunity "to solve significant foreign policy challenges: the issue of borders, as well as limiting the influence of the ideology of Pan-Turkic ideology, political Islam and ethnic separatism in the border with Central Asia, parts of China.
For Kazakhstan at the time the first plan is the solution of urgent economic problems. Since the early to mid-90-ies of the Kazakh market is literally filled with Chinese goods, and many of the young people of the state have found themselves in a new "shop-tourists." These processes were so spontaneous and uncontrollable, which in 1994 initiated by the Kazakh authorities had introduced a visa regime and trade-economic relations have gradually come to a more ordered state.
In the second half of 1990 approaches China for its policy in Central Asia in general and in Kazakhstan are particularly changed. At the forefront are becoming not only economic, but also geo-strategic interests. Priority position in China’s relations with all countries of Central Asia is the issues of collective security. China has always distinguished by realism and pragmatism, not willing to occupy a dominant position in the foreign policy of Kazakhstan, but clearly lay claim to what is to become one of the leading forces. In addition questions have been settled overseas, actively campaign waged by the "struggle against Islamic fundamentalism" and "ethnic separatism". No less important in this period was the join on the Kazakh market of large Chinese companies, including CNPC. In 1995 he was created JSC «CNPC-Aktobemunaigaz is still holding strong positions in the energy market of Kazakhstan.
Since 2000 is a new round of the Kazakh-Chinese relations. During this period, were finally resolved the issues of inter-state border, and the total number of agreements signed at different levels broke all records. China is undertaking a series of active steps to increase its economic presence in the RK and simultaneously solves the important geo-strategic problem for him. Among them: increased competition from Russia and the U.S. for access to Kazakhstan's resources and production, as well as the struggle for influence over local elites.
The most important instrument of Chinese policy is to use the mechanism of the SCO to strengthen own positions in regional security.
In 2005, Kazakhstan and China sign agreement on establishing strategic partnership. In the same period, China deploys active over access to energy resources of Kazakhstan, the main victory in this arena is putting the Atasu-Alashankou pipeline.
Thus, it is undeniable that the relationship between the two countries differ in a constant positive dynamics, and can officially claim the title of the most exemplary and most promising in the region. In these respects, there are almost no unresolved issues, and there is complete solidarity on key issues.
Areas of common cooperation are scale and perspective. At the regional level are: firstly, the interest in maintaining regional security. Actually, the agreement on establishing a strategic partnership was signed in Astana in the summer of 2005 after the "tulip revolution" in Bishkek and the May riots in Andijan, and followed by geopolitical disturbances.
Secondly, desire to see the region economically stable and prosperous. Astana's interest in this case is quite obvious. And China wants to be close to the stable source of raw material and financial resources on the border of western provinces of their own, as well as a rich sale market, is more than logical.
In the framework of bilateral relations, the main direction in which there is unanimity is the energy cooperation. Kazakhstan is interested in the broad implementation of raw materials, as well as diversification of energy exports. The Chinese side, respectively, is interested in acquiring them and diversification of imports.
Exists areas of disagreement, but they are more mundane. Most often at the official level they prefer not to notice. Nevertheless, these moments provide the most complete picture of the real state of the Kazakh-Chinese relations.
The fact that the main achievement of the bilateral cooperation has been considered the settlement of border issues is beyond dispute. Undoubtedly, the signing of relevant agreements between China and Kazakhstan is great importance for both countries. However painful detail in this issue for many years, there remains the problem of cross-border rivers. The biggest are - the Irtysh, the Ili and Tekes. For each of these rivers, the Chinese side developed appropriate irrigation projects, some of which have already put into operation. As a result, the territory of Kazakhstan with every year comes less and less water and its environmental performance worse.
Currently, these problems can be solved within the framework of joint commissions, but the Chinese side strongly delays and impedes the process of addressing this issue. For information on the work of the bilateral commission is practically closed to researchers, and prospects for resolving the issue is extremely vague. It is also possible that China uses a factor of cross-border rivers to provide a permanent impact on Kazakhstan to hold it in their political and economic interests.
Generally, the problem of solving the issue of cross-border rivers is indirectly related to one of the basic problems of the Kazakh-Chinese relations - the dominance of China in the negotiation process in practically all areas of interaction. The reasons are many. Kazakh diplomacy not so long ago gained the necessary strength and experience to international negotiations on such a high level. The Chinese, with their well-defined foreign policy and economic strategy surely suppressed Kazakh colleagues. While having significant financial opportunity as an extra trump impact.
Economic cooperation between Kazakhstan and China was characterized by steady growth of trade, although in recent months, the crisis has broken this trend. Nevertheless, according to Kazakhstani sources, the turnover of Kazakhstan and China in 2008 totaled 12.24 billion U.S. dollars, an increase compared to 2007 quarter. In this case, the trade deficit with China remains positive, and export of goods from Kazakhstan to China exceeded imports by 1,7 times. (Export of goods from Kazakhstan to China totaled $ 7.7 billion U.S. dollars, rising 37%). Also needs to mention the granted credit by China to Kazakhstan in amount 10 billion dollars, to recover since global crisis.
However, it is necessary to note the high imbalance of traffic - both geographically and structurally. 75% of trade between China and the Kazakhstan, have to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is obvious the authorities' desire to China specifically to attract the necessary resources from neighboring countries in a particular region, limiting the activities of Kazakh entrepreneurs supply of raw materials. This reinforces the raw nature of the Kazakh economy and limits the development of manufacturing industries, the formation of modern competitive industries.
The surplus in the trade and economic cooperation also requires additional comments. The first ten positions of Kazakhstani export to China are mineral oil, various kinds of metals - particularly copper. According to the Kazakhstani Customs, in 2008 the share of raw materials in Kazakhstan's exports to China amounted to 91%. Imports also consists of predominantly finished product in the first place pipes for oil and gas pipelines, drilling and tunneling machinery, steel structures, cranes, etc. Moreover, goods imported from China are not comparable with the export of Kazakhstan and on such parameter as a variety of products. Number of items imported products is about 5,420 units, while the number of items of export production is only 167 units.
Another destructive factor in the development of Kazakh-Chinese relations is the work of Chinese enterprises in Kazakhstan. The number of registered Chinese companies several times larger than the number of really active, and among the latter - the majority is focused on commercial and procurement activities, which also reflects the unfavorable development of Kazakhstan's economy overall character of the Kazakh-Chinese economic cooperation.
Speaking about the problems of the Kazakh-Chinese relations cannot by mention the problem of Chinese migration to Kazakhstan. While the data migration services, as well as the overall stability of the situation suggest that the situation in this area is under control. Nevertheless, in the case of mass attraction of the Chinese labor force in those or other projects as well as increasing the number of Chinese companies - which in recent years and there is - there is a risk that the Chinese Diaspora in Kazakhstan may appear.
For the existence of Chinese communities around the world characterized by very rapid alignment of their own infrastructure, liaising with local authorities, the formation of virtually closed and uncontrollable external associations formed on the principle of affinity groups and differing clear hierarchy. In this regard, mention must be made about the potential impact of decisions on accession of Kazakhstan to the WTO. Do not forget that the members of a requirement to “liberalize the labor market”, and it will open to Chinese citizens more opportunities to make Kazakhs serious competition in the labor market.
Given the fact that under its Constitution of the PRC shall strictly adhere to the interests of the Chinese people, including abroad, attempts to force action on such communities necessarily entail a serious complication of relations with China.
The current crisis has certainly affected the development of Kazakh-Chinese relations. This is due to the fact that a stable mechanism for economic cooperation, has worked effectively for many years, gives serious failures, which leads to the need for new forms of interaction.
In general, the location is Kazakhstan in the vicinity of such political and economic giant China makes it a priority vector of Kazakhstan's foreign policy. We take it upon myself to declare that the provision of a truly civilized world order of the XXI century, based on the will of the majority of the world community, its real and potential centers of influence will depend, among other things, the success of developing a partnership of trust of a strategic nature between Kazakhstan and China are stable Kazakhstan-China relations are based on common understanding of new and emerging architecture of international relations today, aimed at building a fair, non-violent and equitable world.
Modern relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey are agreed to calculate since independence the Republic of Kazakhstan. Turkey - the first nation who recognized the independence of Kazakhstan, this happened within 15 minutes after the announcement of Kazakhstan's independence. And since these relationships only flourish, the Kazakh-Turkish cooperation is characterized by positive dynamics of development since the early days of establishment of diplomatic relations. Actively develop cooperation in investment sphere. According to the National Bank of Kazakhstan, during the period from 1993 to March 2009 the inflow of direct investment in Kazakhstan reached more than 808 million dollars.
The important fact is that Turkey has allocated the first foreign loan at the dawn of independence of Kazakhstan in the amount of one billion U.S. dollars. Following this example, and especially after the Kazakh side returned the loan, confidence in Kazakhstan increased and other countries start to invest into Kazakh economy, especially countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan.
Today, Kazakhstan has about 1,500 Turkish companies, with Turkish capital, including oil and gas sector.
In education sphere, an example of successful cooperation is the activities of the International Kazakh-Turkish University of Hoja Akhmed Yasavi in Turkestan, University of Suleiman Demirel in Almaty, and operating throughout the country the 24 Kazakh-Turkish Lyceum. Hundreds of Kazakh students are studying at universities in Turkey.
In the development of economic and cultural relations between the two brotherly countries also actively involved Turkish ethno-cultural center. For the Turkish center unveiling of the monument to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk on Kazakh soil was a big and important event. For the ethnic Turks in Kazakhstan was proud that it was the President of the country opened the first outside of Turkey Ataturk monument, erected grandly at Ishim in the beautiful city of our republic - Astana.
October 22, 2009 Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev and Abdullah Gul in Ankara signed an agreement on strategic partnership. The document establishes the special nature of relations between Astana and Ankara: political, economic, trade, cultural and humanitarian spheres.
In a nowadays, the trade turnover between the two countries goes to pre-crisis level, to three billion U.S. dollars, as noted by the heads of both states, in the long term plan is to increase trade turnover up to ten billion U.S. dollars.
Briefly turning to the history of relations since independence we can confidently call those relations - fraternal. However, rapid assistance and an opening of Turkey towards Kazakhstan in the early nineties were perceived warily from Kazakhstan. There was a phobia and the fear of Pan-Turkic ideology, there were many studies and statements made in this regard.
However, the modern relationships between the two countries do not pose such questions. It is not necessary to reject the existence of certain problems occurring today, such as: transportation, the level of local personnel in the Turkish companies, etc. But as mentioned above, these issues do not have a state or political in nature, and are regulated at the level of expertise and negotiation.
Treaty on strategic partnership signed in 2009 in Ankara is the first such document for Turkey signed among the Central Asian countries.

Kazakhstan is one of the most progressive nations in the region and since its independence the country has proven to be the most reliable U.S. partner in Central Asia. The two countries established its “strategic partnership” in 2006. Astana and Washington are time-tested strategic partners with successful experience of working together in such critical areas as non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the fight against terrorism, energy and democracy.
With the new President in the White House and Mr. Barack Obama`s new “hear and listen” approach to foreign policy bilateral relations between Kazakhstan and United States have entered the new stage of their development. President Obama`s phone conversation with President Nursultan Nazarbayev soon after the election in November, 2008 instilled confidence that, under the new Administration, relations between the countries would continue to grow. The two leaders discussed further cooperation on important international issues such as non-proliferation, the fight against terrorism and the stabilization in Afghanistan.
The phone call laid the foundation for further discussion between the states at the highest level. In April, 2009 U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden initiated a phone call to President Nazarbayev and on behalf of the U.S. President expressed his gratitude for Kazakhstan`s role in regional cooperation. He assured that the U.S. Administration will support Kazakhstan`s OSCE Chairmanship in 2010, stressed Kazakhstan`s contribution to nuclear non-proliferation, President Obama`s readiness to strengthen international non-proliferation regime and underline America`s support of Kazakhstan`s policy in this sphere. He also expressed hope for Kazakhstan`s further participation in non-proliferation efforts and invited President Nazarbayev to take part in the international conference on non-proliferation to be convened under the initiative of the US President. In his turn, President Nazarbayev expressed support for nuclear initiatives stated by U.S. President Barack Obama in Prague.
In 2010 Kazakhstan and the United States launched the new format of their bilateral cooperation – the “Annual Bilateral Consultations”. The first round of consultations was held in Washington, DC on March 8-10. The two working groups chaired by Kazakhstan`s Deputy Foreign Minister Kairat Umarov and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs Robert Blake reviewed the state bilateral cooperation. They covered a full range of issues: political cooperation; security, including counter-narcotics and counter terrorism; Afghanistan; nonproliferation; OSCE; human dimension, including democratic reform, rule of law, human rights, and NGOs; as well as economic development issues – energy cooperation, trade investment, health, and education. The groups agreed to continue their work in accordance with the Action Plan adopted at the first round of the Kazakhstan – U.S. Annual Bilateral Consultations.
Kazakhstan is one of the premier performers in the former Soviet Union on security and energy. After all, Kazakhstan today stands as a model of religious tolerance. Interethnic conflict is largely absent. Rapid economic growth has erased most of the ground lost over the past twenty years and the country is on the cusp of immense prosperity with the onset of oil production at Kashagan in the next years.
The great challenge ahead is to manage that growth and to ensure that its benefits accrue to all of Kazakhstan’s citizens. The best guarantor of Kazakhstan’s future is a prosperous, stable, and democratic society where all citizens have a stake in the political system.

Comparative Analysis and Future Trends

Comparing the relationship between Kazakhstan, with all the above mentioned states we can come to the following conclusions: Kazakhstan will continue to adhere to multi-vector line alignment of its international relations. Being among such countries as China and Russia: Taking into account the rapidly growing Chinese economy and the corresponding need for raw materials and mineral resources, as well as the integration of the economies outside the country, when Kazakhstan and Russia have seventy-year shared history, transport infrastructure, common language, life etc. An important factor is common border with Russia, length of 4400 miles.
Russia is a geographical counterweight to Chinese hegemony in the region, however, economic relations with China allows Kazakhstan to have a counterweight to Russia in economic development. Keep in mind that one of the major cross-boundary rivers - Irtysh also flows into Russia, thereby Kazakhstan voice supports by Russia.
As mentioned above, Turkey - is the brotherly nation of Kazakhstan on the basis of ethnicity. And also a great transit country to Western markets. Each year, we observe an increase in mutual relations in all sectors. Construction is a top priority. Tourism in Turkey is the most popular destination among the Kazakh population. Among European countries, Turkey ranks first on the joint turnover.
Based on the above facts, it is obvious that the relationship between Kazakhstan and Turkey, occupies all areas of government activity, as the economy, military, political, educational, cultural, tourism, services, and many other fields.
Relations with the United States of America are a guarantee of stable development of the state in economic and political terms, as well as advancing democratic institutions in the country. A special place is occupied by a vector of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Steadily developing Kazakhstan in Central Asia region is also necessary for the United States.
And as we know,Listen
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 Kazakhstan’s leadership recognizes that economic and political modernizations depend on continued political reform if it is to join the world’s fifty most competitive countries over the next decade and the United States firmly support this goal. U.S. is working actively through assistance programs to support Kazakhstan’s efforts to create a modern, democratic society that affords each individual the opportunity to realize his or her destiny.
In sum, the United States and Kazakhstan have embarked on a promising strategic partnership at a moment of enormous global and regional opportunity. Our relations increasingly benefit the region and world, even as they benefit our two peoples. We are making notable progress in enlarging our shared vision of regional cooperation and integration.
In conclusion I would like to say that Kazakhstan as before will adhere to the balance among the major world players like the U.S., China and Russia. The huge reserves of mineral resources allow the young state each year to introduce new reforms and move towards the development of sequenced.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that Kazakhstan is limited only by the cooperation of the above listed countries and Turkey. Multi-vector policy aimed at cooperation with many countries, leading to the development of an independent, sovereign and prosperous Kazakhstan.

Sources:, A.Kaukenov, Kazakhstan-China relations: unity and conflict of interests

Newspaper “Liter”, Serik Malayev  № 196 – 10/21/09

Embassy of RK to the US bulletin 

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