Tuesday, April 05, 2011

Charting the Organization of China's State-Party Governance Order

 From The Communist Party of China (Zhongnanhai, Beijing - Headquarters of CPC and Chinese Government; Wall Banner on the left-hand side: "Long Live the Great Chinese Communist Party!"; Wall Banner on the right-hand side: "Long Live the Invincible Mao Zedong Thought!")

The organization of political power in China is both complex and well worth studying. To a large extent, complexity is a result of the mechanics of this organization. Western states tend to vest all political authority in the apparatus of state--its government. The great issues of organization law then focus on the way in which power is divided among the various parts of that government apparatus (separation of powers and check and balances among a judicial, legislative and executive "branch") and subsidiary units (in federal states). In China, the Constitution divides authority among the Communist Party and the state apparatus (government). The Communist Party, through its leadership role, retains political authority within the state. That includes the power to manage the substantive political policy and objectives of the polity. Administrative authority, that is the authority to operationalize political determinations of the Party, falls to the state apparatus, the principal elements of which are the State Council (executive organ) complex and the National People's Congress (legislative organ). The Communist Party is itself organized in accordance with its own constitution and subject to the operational rules through which it is constituted. Members of the Communist Party participate in political governance, but organized in accordance with the principle of democratic centralism. State organization is undertaken by its members, many of whom are members of the Communist Party and all of whose determinations must conform to the policy objectives specified by the Party. Officials of the state apparatus may be elected by the people (including people not members of the Party) but may not participate in the internal governance nor the political leadership role of the Party. In addition, a number of other political parties are recognized, all of which also operate under the leadership role of the Communist Party. Putting this all together can be daunting, for anyone, including Chinese nationals.

In an effort to suggest a framework for organizing this multi-organ form of government, my research assistant Jia "Tracy" SHEN ( 沈佳 ) has developed a set of simple "maps" of a portion of this organizational form. Included below are three documents prepared by my research assistant Jia (Tracey) Shen (沈佳), whose brief bio appears at the end of this post. Some may find helpful the "Glossary of Terms in English and Chinese" prepared by the organization China Vitae. This organization is "a resource of biographical information on more than 4000 Chinese leaders in government, politics, the military, education, business, and the media. . . . . China Vitae also tracks the appearances and travel of approximately 300 leading Chinese officials. Searchable information is available on date and location of activity, officials in attendance, topics raised, and source of the data." (Id.).  We hope you find this useful.

1. The Communist Party in Context: Interaction and relationship between Communist Party of China (CPC), government and National People’s Congress (NPC)

2. Organization of the State Council Bureaucracy

3. National People's Congress System

4. Brief Bio Jia Shen (沈佳)

1. Interaction and relationship between Communist Party of China (CPC), government and National People’s Congress (NPC)

Central level:
。 In order of power:

By Constitution, Secretary-General (CPC), Chairman of NPC, Premier

In reality, Secretary-General (CPC), Premier, Chairman of NPC

Exception: the Former Premier and later Chairman of NPC, Peng Li overshadowed Premier Rongji Zhu since Li has better networking than Premier Zhu.

Local Level:
。 In 22 out of 30 provinces across China, the provincial/municipal Secretary-General of CPC will also serve as the director of local People’s Congress (LPC)

Leader and subordinates:

Government and NPC is under the absolute leadership of CPC policy-wisely, legislative-wisely.

【NB】:above is what I concluded from referring to several websites: http://www.chinabaike.com/article/baike/jingji/2008/200803291260477.html; http://q.ifeng.com/group/article/105645.html (group blog)

1. Nature of CPPCC
The CPPCC is an organization of the united front with wide representation. It is an important organ of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC. It is composed of the CPC, other political parties, mass organizations, and representative public personages from all walks of life, representatives of compatriots of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao as well as of returned overseas Chinese and other specially invited people.

2. History
On September 21-30, 1949, the First CPPCC Plenary Session was held in Beiping (now Beijing). Altogether, 662 representatives, including those of the Communist Party of China (CPC), democratic parties, mass organizations, various localities, the People's Liberation Army, ethnic minorities, overseas Chinese and religious groups, attended the session.

Exercising the functions and power of the National People's Congress (NPC), which had not yet been established, the session proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China as the will of all Chinese people. It adopted the Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the Organic Law of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and the Organic Law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China.

During the meeting, it was decided to make Beijing the capital of the republic, designate the five-star red flag as the national flag, declare the song of "March of the Volunteers'' as the national anthem and the common era calendar was adopted.

During the session, the chairman, vice-chairmen and members of the Central People's Government, as well as the first National Committee of the CPPCC were elected. Mao Zedong was made the first chairman of the CPPCC National Committee.

The eight non-Communist parties

They are those established before the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, which were then dedicated to the realization of a bourgeois republic in China and supported the CPC in the latter's effort of overthrowing the rule of the Kuomintang. They are independent in organization and enjoy political freedom, organizational independence and legal equality under the Constitution.

(1) China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang
Officially founded on January 1, 1948, its main constituents at the time were former Kuomintang members for democracy and other patriotic personages. Their political stand was to overthrow the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and realize independence, democracy and peace in China.

Its members come from mainly four areas: Those with relations with the Kuomintang, those with relations with people of all walks of life in Taiwan, those dedicated to the unification of the motherland and others. The party mainly draws members from representative people and middle-level and senior intellectuals.

The party has a membership of 60,000 and He Luli is its chairwoman.

(2) China Democratic League

First established in November 1939,
In 1997 it adopted a constitution which stipulates that its program is to hold high the banner of patriotism and socialism, implement the basic line for the primary stage of socialism, safeguard stability in the society, strengthen services to national unity and strive for the promotion of socialist modernization, establishment and improvement of a market economy, enhancement of political restructuring and socialist spiritual civilization, emancipation and development of productive forces, consolidation and expansion of the united patriotic front and realization of the grand goals of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

China Democratic League is mainly made up by middle-level and senior intellectuals in the fields of culture, education, science and technology. It has a membership of 144,000 and its chairman is Ding Shisun.

(3) China Democratic National Construction Association
It was established on December 16, 1945. Its political stand at the time was to guarantee the basic political rights and human rights of citizens, protect and develop national industry and commerce and oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang.

Its present constitution calls for the implementation of the CPC's policy of focusing on economic construction, acceptance of the leadership of the CPC, persisting in the tradition of self-education, adhering to the principle of democratic centralism and carrying out the policy of multi-party cooperation and political consultation. Most of its 78,000 members are representative figures in the economic field. Its chairman is Cheng Siwei.

4) China Association for the Promotion of Democracy
When it was founded on December 30, 1945, it was made up mostly by people engaged in education and publishing and patriotic figures in industry and commerce in Shanghai who stood for promotion of democracy and reform of the political power. It called on the Kuomintang to return the political power to the people, the establishment of a united and constitutional government.

The association is mainly made up by representative intellectuals in the fields of education, culture, publishing and science. It has a membership of 73,000 and its chairman is Xu Jialu.

(5) Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party

Founded in August 1930, its main political program was to oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and establish the power of the people.

Its present program includes the stand to accept the leadership of the CPC, adhere to multi-party cooperation and political consultation, practice democratic centralism and safeguard the rights and interests of party members and associated intellectuals.

It now has a membership of 73,000 and its chairman is Jiang Zhenghua.

(6) China Zhi Gong Dang

China Zhi Gong Dang was founded in San Francisco, October 1925 by overseas Chinese organizations in North America.

According to its constitution, the party is made up mainly by the middle and upper levels of returned overseas Chinese and their relatives. Its job is to assist the CPC and the Chinese government, consolidate and develop political stability, safeguard the rights and interests of party members and associated returned overseas Chinese and their relatives, reflect their opinions and demands and practice democratic centralism.

It has a membership of nearly 18,000 and its chairman is Luo Haocai.

(7) Jiusan Society

When it was first established in May 1946, its political stand was to carry on the tradition of democracy and science, oppose the civil war and practice democratic politics.

The present program of Jiusan Society stipulates that organizationally, the party draws members from representative middle and senior level intellectuals in the fields of science, technology, higher education and medicine. It stands for the multi-party cooperation and political consultation, democratic centralism and the safeguard of the rights and interest of its members.

It has a membership of 78,000 and its chairman is Wu Jieping.

(8) Taiwan Democratic Self-government League

It was established on November 12, 1947 in Hong Kong. At the time it was a political organization of Taiwan residents which was founded and existed outside Taiwan Province, sought to become free from the rule of the Kuomintang, implement democracy and regional self-government. In March 1949, the league moved its headquarters from Hong Kong to Beijing.

Its present political program stands for patriotism and socialism, uniting with league members and Taiwan compatriots and striving for the acceleration of reform, opening up and socialist modernization drive, safeguarding stability and unity, improvement of socialist democracy and legal system and the realization of the peaceful unification of the motherland and "one country, two systems."

Most of the members are representative and upper level Taiwan compatriots living in large and medium-size cities on the mainland. It has a membership of over 1,800 and its chairman is Zhang Kehui.
Above source is from http://www.china.org.cn/english/chuangye/55437.htm.

Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)

National Committee of the CPPCC 政协全国委员会
Chair 主席
Vice-Chairman 副主席
Secretary-General 秘书长
Deputy Secretary-General 副秘书长
General Office 办公厅

Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee 常务委员会
Member 委员
Subcommittee for Handing Proposals of the CPPCC National Com. 全国政协提案委员会
Chair 主任

Subcommittee of Economy 全国政协经济委员会
Subcommittee of Human Resources and Environment 全国政协人口资源环境委员会
Subcommittee of Education, Science, Culture, Health and Sports 全国政协教科文卫体委员会
Subcommittee of Social and Legal Affairs 全国政协社会法制委员会
Subcommittee of Ethnic and Religious Affairs 全国政协民族宗教委员会
Subcommittee of Cultural and Historical Data 全国政协文史资料委员会
Subcommittee of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Compatriots 全国政协港澳台侨委员会
and Overseas Chinese
Subcommittee of Foreign Affairs 国政协外事委员会

2. Organization of the State Council Bureaucracy.

General Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
Ministries under State Council 国务院部委
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of National Defence
National Development and Reform Commission
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Science and Technology
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
State Ethnic Affairs Commission
Ministry of Public Security
Ministry of State Security
Ministry of Supervision
Ministry of Civil Affairs
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
Ministry of Land and Resources
Ministry of Environmental Protection
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
Ministry of Transport
Ministry of Railways
Ministry of Water Resources
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Commerce
Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Health
National Population and Family Planning Commission
People's Bank of China
National Audit Office

Government offices administration of the State Council国务院直属特设委员会
State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council

Organizations directly under the State Council
General Administration of Customs
State Administration of Taxation
State Administration for Industry and Commerce
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine
State Administration of Radio, Film and Television
General Administration of Press and Publication  (National Copyright Administration )

General Administration of Sport
State Administration of Work Safety
National Bureau of Statistics
State Forestry Administration

State Intellectual Property Office
National Tourism Administration
State Administration for Religious Affairs
Counselors’ Office of the State Council
Government Offices Administration of the State Council国务院机关事务办公室
National Bureau of Corruption Prevention

Offices under the State Council国务院下属办事机构
Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council
Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council
Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council
Research Office of the State Council

Institutions directly under the State Council国务院下属事业单位
Xinhua News Agency
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Chinese Academy of Engineering
Development Research Centre of the State Council
National School of Administration
China Seismological Bureau
China Meteorological Administration
China Banking Regulatory Commission
China Securities Regulatory Commission
China Insurance Regulatory Commission
State Electricity Regulatory Commission
National Council for Social Security Fund
National Natural Science Foundation
Taiwan Affairs office of the State Council
Information Office of the State Council
The State Archives Administration

Administrations under Ministries [regular is the administration and the bold is its supervisory body]国务院各部委直属局
General Office
State Bureau for Letters and Calls
State Administration of Grain


National Energy Administration
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
State Tobacco Monopoly Administration
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
State Administration of Civil Service
Ministry of Land and Resource
State Oceanic Administration
Ministry of Land and Resource
State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping
Ministry of Transportation
Civil Aviation Administration of China
Ministry of transportation
State Post Bureau
Ministry of Culture
State Administration of Cultural Heritage
Ministry of Health
State Food and Drug Administration
Ministry of Health
State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Central Bank of China
State Administration of Foreign Exchange
State Administration of Work Safety
State Administration of Coal Mine Safety
Affiliated to Central Committee of CPC
National Administration for the Protection of State Secrets
Affiliated to Central Committee of CPC
State Cryptography Administration
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
China National Space Administration*
Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
China Atomic Energy Authority*
Ministry of Education
State Language Commission*
Ministry of environmental protection
National Nuclear Safety Administration*
*means they are right now part of the ministry but still remain the institution plaque to the public.

Source is from central government portal.

3. National People's Congress System.

National People’s Congress
National People’s Congress Standing Committee
Chairman’s council
The Chairmen's Council is consisted of the Chairman, the Vice-Chairmen and Secretary-General of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC).
The Chairmen's Council handles the important day-to-day work of the NPC Standing Committee.

Special committees 全国人大专门委员会
Ethnic affairs committee 民族委员会
Law Committee 法律委员会
Internal and judicial committee 内务和司法委员会
Financial and economic affairs committee 财政经济委员会
Education, Science, Culture and public health committee 教育,科技和公共卫生委员会
Foreign Affairs committee外事委员会
Overseas Chinese affairs committee侨务委员会
Environment protection and resource conservation committee 环境和资源保护委员会
Agriculture and rural affairs committee 农业和农村事务委员会

Working and Administrative bodies of standing committee 常委会工作和行政机构
General office 常委会办公厅
Legislative affairs commission 法制工作委员会
Budgetary affairs commission 预算工作委员会
Credentials committee 代表资格审查委员会
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Basic Law committee 香港特别行政区基本法委员会
Macao Special Administrative Region Basic Law committee 澳门特别行政区基本法委员会

General Office 常委会办公厅
the First Bureau of Secretaries  第一书记处
The Second Bureau of Secretaries 第二书记处
The Liaison Bureau 联络局
The Foreign Affairs Bureau外事局
The Information Bureau新闻局
The Letters and Visits reception Bureau 信访局
The Personnel Bureau人事局
The Administrative Bureau of Department Affairs机关事务管理局
The Administrative Bureau of the Great Hall of the People人民大会堂管理局
The Training Center培训中心
The Information Center新闻中心
The Library人大图书馆
Party committee of institutions机关党委
Party disciplinary committee of institutions机关纪委
Trade Union commissions of institutions机关工委
Press of Chinese Democratic Legal system中国民主法治报
National People’s Congress Press house 全国人大杂志社
Conference Center 全国人大会议中心
Other Research and Consultative bodies 其他研究和咨询机构

Source is from national people’s congress official website: http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/news/


The NPC is the highest organ of state power. It exercises the state power of amending the Constitution and supervising the enforcement of the Constitution; enacts basic laws of the state; elects and decides on the choices of the leading personnel of the highest state organs of China, including the President and Vice President, the choice of the Premier of the State Council and other component members of the State Council; elects the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and decide on the choice of other component members of the Central Military Commission; elects the President of the Supreme People's Court and the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate; examines and approves the plan for national economic and social development and the report on its implementation; examines and approves the state budget and the report on its implementation; and make decisions on other important issues in national life. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It meets in session during the first quarter each year and is convened by the NPC Standing Committee.

Allocation of the Number of Deputies

The number of delegates to the National People's Congress shall be decided in accordance with the proportion of the population in each province, autonomous region and municipality directly under the Central Government. No less than 15 delegates shall be allocated to a province or an autonomous region with a small population. At the same time, the allocation should make sure that there is appropriate representation of all ethnic groups, people from all walks of life and all political parties within the NPC.

Rights and Duties of NPC Deputies

The National People's Congress is comprised of deputies who exercise the highest state power. According to the Constitution and the Organic Law of the National's People's Congress, NPC deputies are elected for a term of five years. The term of a deputy chosen through by-elections dates from the date of the vote until the expiration of the current NPC.

In accordance with the Constitution and the Organic Law of the National's People's Congress, the NPC deputies enjoy the following rights and duties:

1. Putting forward bills, suggestions and criticisms;

2. Putting forward proposals regarding the dismissal of government officials;

3. Having power to address and make inquiries;

4. Not being held liable for their speeches and votes at various NPC meetings;

5. Exemption from arrest or criminal trial without authorization, whether or not the NPC is in session;

6. The right to inspect the topics for discussion at the NPC session and related contents; and

7. The state and society provides NPC deputies with necessary guarantees when they are attending the NPC sessions and performing their duties as deputies.

NPC deputies should fulfill following duties:

1. To abide by the Constitution and laws in an exemplary way, exercise their powers in an earnest way, guard state secrets and help facilitate the enforcement of the Constitution and laws in the production, work and other social activities in which they take part; and

2. To keep in close touch with their constituency and the public, listening to and giving expression to the opinions and requirements of the people and work hard to serve the people.

Source is from 中国网China.org: http://www.china.org.cn/english/archiveen/27743.htm

4. Brief Bio Jia Shen (沈佳)

沈佳,毕业于浙江大学英语语言文学系,现就读于宾夕法尼亚州立大学国际关系学院,研究方向:中美 印三国比较研究,主要侧重于贸易和技术领域。 2007 年 9 月-12 月,在法国里昂第三大学以交换生身份学习欧洲比较法和国际金融, 2008 年夏季,在香港大学作为实习交换生参加投资银行和人力资源管理研讨会并且在苏黎世人寿保险香 港分公司实习理财顾问师一职。

2009 年 3 月-2010 年 6 月,受雇于百特医疗公司(Fortune 500)担任临床顾问一职,顾问销售业绩为年 目标的 150%,跃居销售大区第二名。

Jia “Tracy” SHEN, the class of 2012, School of International Affairs,field of study: comparative research between China and US in terms of trade and technology. Minor concentration in China, India, and the U.S. relationship. Alumni school: Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Overseas study: Finance and comparative law in Jean Moulin Lyon 3, France. Post graduation study: Investment banking and Human Resources in Hong Kong University. Summer Internship: Zurich Life Insurance (Hong Kong) in insurance consultancy.

Previous job: Baxter (China) Health Care Corporation as Clinic Consultant. Current activities: Master of International Affairs, Pennsylvania State University

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