科学数据是国家科技创新发展和经济社会发展的重要基础性战略资源。近年来，随着我国科技投入不断增长，科技创新能力不断提升，科学数据呈现出“井喷式”增长，而且质量大幅提高。海量科学数据对生命科学、天文学、空间科学、地球科学、物理学等多个学科领域的科研活动更是带来了冲击性影响，科学研究方法发生了重要变革。科技创新越来越依赖于大量、系统、高可信度的科学数据，我国在科学数据开发利用、开放共享和安全保护等方面还有很大改进空间。[Scientific data is an important basic strategic resource for national scientific and technological innovation and economic and social development. In recent years, with the continuous increase in China’s investment in science and technology and the continuous improvement in scientific and technological innovation capabilities, scientific data has exhibited “blowout” growth, and the quality has greatly increased. Massive scientific data has brought impact impacts on scientific research activities in many disciplines such as life sciences, astronomy, space science, earth science, and physics. The scientific research method has undergone important changes. Scientific and technological innovation is increasingly dependent on massive, systematic, high-confidence scientific data. There is still much room for improvement in the development and utilization of scientific data, open sharing, and security protection in China.]
The General Office of the State Council issued the "Administrative Measures for Scientific
Data"2018-04-03 China Government Network
Recently, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Administrative Measures for Scientific Data Management" (hereinafter referred to as "Measures") to further strengthen and standardize scientific data management, ensure the safety of scientific data, increase the level of open sharing, and better serve the country's scientific and technological innovation, economic and social development, and National security provides support.
Scientific data is an important basic strategic resource for national scientific and technological innovation and economic and social development. In recent years, with the continuous increase in China’s investment in science and technology and the continuous improvement in scientific and technological innovation capabilities, scientific data has exhibited “blowout” growth, and the quality has greatly increased. Massive scientific data has brought impact impacts on scientific research activities in many disciplines such as life sciences, astronomy, space science, earth science, and physics. The scientific research method has undergone important changes. Scientific and technological innovation is increasingly dependent on massive, systematic, high-confidence scientific data. There is still much room for improvement in the development and utilization of scientific data, open sharing, and security protection in China.
The "Measures" implement the spirit of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, take Xi Jinping's socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics as a guide, deeply grasp the development trend of scientific data in the era of big data, fully draw on domestic and foreign advanced experience and mature practices, and strengthen the full life cycle of scientific data. Management puts data security at the forefront, highlights the importance of scientific data sharing and utilization, innovates institutional mechanisms, focuses on weak links, and strengthens and standardizes scientific data management. This will further improve the level of scientific data in China and bring into play the national financial input and output. Benefits are of great significance to improving scientific and technological innovation, economic and social development, and national security support and support capabilities.
The Measures clarify the general principles, main responsibilities, data collection, exchange and preservation, sharing and utilization, and confidentiality and security of China's scientific data management, and put emphasis on specific management measures in five areas. The first is to clarify the division of responsibilities of all parties, strengthen the main body of legal entity responsibility, clarify the responsibilities of competent authorities, embody “who owns and who is responsible” and “who is open and who benefits”. Second, in accordance with the principle of “classified classification and management to ensure safety and controllability,” competent authorities and legal entities determine the confidentiality and opening conditions of scientific data according to law, and strengthen the supervision of the sharing and use of scientific data. The third is to strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, regulate the conduct of users and producers of scientific data, and show respect for the intellectual property rights of scientific data. Fourth, the scientific data produced by the Science and Technology Plan project are required to be subject to mandatory exchanges, and standardized management and long-term preservation are conducted through scientific data centers, and data accumulation and open sharing are strengthened. Fifth, it is proposed that legal entities should establish incentive mechanisms in terms of job setup, performance income, and job title assessment, and strengthen scientific data management capabilities.
Notice of Scientific Data Management Measures
The State Council issued No. 17 (2018)
The people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government, the ministries and commissions of the State Council, and the agencies directly under the State Council:
The "Administrative Measures for Scientific Data" has been approved by the State Council and is now printed and distributed to you. Please implement it in earnest.
Office of the State Council
March 17, 2018
(This article is released publicly)
Scientific Data Management ApproachChapter 1 GeneralThe first is to further strengthen and standardize the management of scientific data, ensure the safety of scientific data, increase the level of openness and sharing, and better support national scientific and technological innovation, economic and social development, and national security. According to the "Progress of the People's Republic of China on Science and Technology," and "Chinese People The Provisions of the People's Republic of China on Promoting the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements and the Provisional Measures for the Administration of the Sharing of Administrative Information Resources shall be formulated.Article 2 The scientific data referred to in these Measures shall be mainly included in the natural sciences, engineering and technical sciences, and other fields, and shall be obtained and used for data obtained through basic research, applied research, and experimental development, as well as through observation and monitoring, investigation and investigation, and inspection and testing. The raw data of scientific research activities and their derived data.Article 3 These Measures shall apply to such activities as collection, production, processing, open sharing, management and use of scientific data supported by government budget funds.Any unit or individual engaged in scientific data related activities within the territory of the People's Republic of China and meets the conditions prescribed in these Measures shall be implemented in accordance with these Measures.Article 4 Scientific data management follows the principles of hierarchical management, safety control, and full utilization, defining the main responsibility, strengthening capacity building, and promoting openness and sharing.Article 5 Any unit or individual engaged in the collection, production, use, or management of scientific data shall abide by the relevant laws and regulations of the State and department rules, and shall not use scientific data to engage in activities that endanger national security, public interests or the legitimate rights and interests of others.Chapter II DutiesArticle 6 The system of scientific data management shall be organized by the state as a whole and all departments shall be responsible for the division of workers.Article 7 The administrative department of science and technology under the State Council shall take the lead in the overall management and comprehensive coordination of scientific data across the country. The main responsibilities are:(1) Organizing research and development of national scientific data management policies and standards;(2) Coordinating and promoting scientific data standard management, open sharing and evaluation and evaluation;(3) To coordinately promote the construction and development of the National Scientific Data Center;(D) Responsible for the construction of national scientific data network management platform and data maintenance.Article 8 The main responsibilities of relevant departments of the State Council and relevant departments of the provincial people's government (hereinafter collectively referred to as the competent department) in the management of scientific data are:(1) Responsible for establishing and improving the scientific data management policies and rules and regulations of this department (local area), and publicizing and implementing the national scientific data management policies;(B) to guide its subsidiary legal entities to strengthen and standardize scientific data management;(3) Doing or authorizing the relevant units to do a good job of scientific data sizing in accordance with relevant state regulations;(4) Overall planning and construction of scientific data centers of this department (local area) to promote the openness and sharing of scientific data;(5) To establish a sound and effective incentive mechanism and organize the evaluation and assessment of the scientific data work of the legal entities subordinate to the department (local area).Article 9 The legal entities concerning scientific research institutes, colleges and universities, and enterprises (hereinafter collectively referred to as legal entities) are responsible subjects for the administration of scientific data. Their main responsibilities are:(1) Implement the national and departmental (local) scientific data management policies, and establish and improve relevant management systems for scientific data of the unit;(2) Scientific data collection, production, processing, and long-term preservation in accordance with relevant standards and standards to ensure data quality;(3) Doing a good job in the confidentiality and safety management of scientific data in accordance with relevant regulations;(4) Establishing a scientific data management system, promulgating an open catalogue of scientific data, updating it in time, and actively carrying out scientific data sharing services;(5) Responsible for the conditions, funds, and personnel guarantees for the software and hardware facilities required for scientific data management operations.Article 10 The scientific data center is an important carrier for promoting the openness and sharing of scientific data. It is entrusted by competent authorities to establish legal entities with conditions, and the main responsibilities are:(1) To undertake the integration and exchange of scientific data in related fields;(b) Responsible for the classification, classification, analysis, and analysis of scientific data;(3) To ensure the safety of scientific data and promote the openness and sharing of scientific data according to law;(d) Strengthen exchanges and cooperation in scientific data at home and abroad.Chapter III Collection, Exchange, and PreservationArticle 11 Legal persons and scientific data producers shall organize and carry out scientific data collection, production, processing and arrangement in accordance with relevant standards and regulations to form an easy-to-use database or data set.The legal entity shall establish a scientific data quality control system to ensure the accuracy and availability of the data.Article 12 The competent department shall establish a scientific data exchange system, and carry out the scientific data exchange work of the department (local area) on the basis of the national unified government affairs network and data sharing and exchange platform.Article 13 The scientific data formed by scientific and technological plans (special projects, funds, etc.) funded by government budget funds shall be submitted by the project leader to the relevant scientific data centers. The scientific data center that receives the data should issue a certificate of exchange.The management departments of science and technology plans (special funds, funds, etc.) at all levels shall establish a mechanism for the exchange of scientific data, acceptance of scientific and technological plans (special projects, funds, etc.), and the scientific data generated after acceptance of projects/projects shall also be submitted.Article 14 Competent departments and legal entities shall establish and improve the management system for the submission of data for academic papers at home and abroad.When scientific data created by government budget funds are used to compose and publish relevant scientific data when publishing papers in foreign academic journals, the authors of the thesis shall submit the scientific data to their units for unified management before the publication of the paper.Article 15 Scientific data involving state secrets, national security, and public interests that are formed by social funds must be submitted in accordance with relevant regulations.Other scientific data generated from the encouragement of social funding shall be submitted to relevant scientific data centers.Article 16 A legal entity shall establish a system for the preservation of scientific data and provide necessary facilities such as data storage, management, service, and security to ensure the integrity and safety of scientific data.Article 17 A legal entity shall strengthen the construction of a scientific data talent team and establish an incentive mechanism in terms of job setting, performance income, and job title assessment.Article 18 The administrative department for science and technology under the State Council shall strengthen its overall layout and optimize the integration to form a national scientific data center on the basis of a scientific data center with good conditions and obvious advantages in resources.Chapter 4 Sharing and UtilizationArticle 19 The scientific data formed by the government budget funds shall be in accordance with the principle of opening as the exception and not being open, and the competent department shall organize the compilation of the scientific data resource catalog. The relevant catalogs and data shall be timely accessed to the national data sharing and exchange platform. The society and relevant departments are open to sharing, and the scientific data are shared between the military and the people. Except where there are special provisions in national laws and regulations.Article 20 Legal entities shall classify scientific data, classify the confidentiality and duration of confidentiality of scientific data, open conditions, open objects, and audit procedures, publish scientific data open catalogs as required, and download online, share offline, or customize services. And other ways open to the community to share.Article 21 The legal entity shall, based on demand, analyze and mine scientific data to form valuable scientific data products and carry out value-added services. Encourage social organizations and enterprises to carry out market-based value-added services.Article 22 Competent departments and legal entities shall actively promote the publication and dissemination of scientific data, and support scientific researchers in organizing the publication of scientific data with clear, accurate and complete property rights and high sharing value.Article 23 Users of scientific data shall abide by the relevant provisions of intellectual property rights and shall indicate the scientific data used and referenced in the work of publication, patent application, and monograph publication.Article 24 Where scientific data are required for government decision-making, public safety, national defense construction, environmental protection, disaster prevention and reduction, public welfare scientific research, etc., the legal entity shall provide it without compensation; if fees are really required, procedures and non- The principle of profit is to establish a reasonable charge standard and announce it to the public and accept supervision.For scientific activities that require the use of scientific data, the parties should sign a paid service contract to clarify the rights and obligations of both parties.If there are special provisions in national laws and regulations, they shall comply with its provisions.Chapter 5 Confidentiality and SecurityArticle 25 Scientific data concerning state secrets, national security, social public interests, trade secrets and personal privacy shall not be open to the outside world; if it is really open to the outside world, it shall review the purposes of use, user qualifications, and confidentiality conditions. And strictly control the scope of knowledge.Article 26 The collection, production, processing, management, and use of scientific data involving state secrets shall be carried out in accordance with relevant State secrecy provisions. The competent authorities and legal entities shall establish and improve a system of scientific data management and use involving state secrets, and strictly manage the links of production, verification, registration, copying, transmission, and destruction.In the case of foreign exchanges and cooperation that need to provide scientific data concerning state secrets, the legal entity shall clearly state the type, scope, and use of the data to be used, and report to the competent department for approval in accordance with the procedures for the administration of confidentiality. After being approved by the competent authority, the legal entity shall go through relevant formalities in accordance with regulations and sign a confidentiality agreement with the user.Article 27 Competent departments and legal entities shall strengthen the safety management of scientific data throughout its life cycle, formulate scientific data security protection measures, and strengthen protection management of data download authentication, authorization, etc. to prevent data from being used maliciously.For scientific data that need to be published externally or scientific data that needs to be provided externally, the competent authorities and legal entities should establish a corresponding security review system.Article 28 Legal entities and scientific data centers shall establish network security assurance systems in accordance with the national cyber security management regulations, adopt safe and reliable products and services, and improve the management of data management and control, attribute management, identification, behavior tracing, and blacklist management. Measures to improve the security protection system against tamper, leakage, attack, and virus.Article 29 Scientific data centers shall establish emergency management and disaster recovery mechanisms, establish emergency management systems as required, and back up important scientific data in different places.Chapter VI Supplementary ProvisionsArticle 30 Competent departments and legal entities shall establish and improve evaluation systems for the evaluation of scientific data management and open and shared work.Article 31 For acts of forgery of data, infringement of intellectual property rights, failure to submit data in accordance with regulations, etc., the competent department may, according to the severity of the circumstances, order the relevant units and responsible persons to order rectification, report criticism, and dispose of the punishment or impose administrative penalties according to law.The units and individuals that violate the relevant laws and regulations of the State shall be prosecuted for corresponding responsibilities according to law.Article 32 The competent department may formulate detailed implementation rules with reference to these Measures. Scientific data management systems that involve the field of national defense are separately stipulated by relevant departments.Article 33 The present Measures shall come into force as of the date of issuance.