Sunday, April 29, 2018

"Creating a New Pattern of Research on China’s Credit Legislation and Credit Rating From an International Perspective" [以国际视野开创中国信用立法与信用评估研究新格局]: Media Coverage of a Recent Seminar on Social Credit Initiatives

Flora Sapio and I recently participated in a day long set of events centered around China's "Social Credit" Initiative and related issues of big data management.  Meeting with government officials and academics we exchanged ideas about the scope, character, and principles of an analogous project of "social credit" initiatives as they might exist outside of China. The events were organized by Capital Normal University and Professor Shi Xinzhong, director of the Credit Legislation and Credit Evaluation Research Center of Capital Normal University, who also moderated the event. We are grateful for his efforts in organizing a quite successful event. Special thanks as well to Shaoming Zhu, the President of the Foundation for Law and International Affairs, whose sensitive translation efforts were an essential element of the success of this event. 

We very much appreciated the opportunity to exchange views with the participants at the Conference, whose names appear below.  A critical task for policy makers and academics studying and participating in the construction of social credit systems within their own legal-political systems, is to understand both the legal basis and the political framework within which these initiatives may develop. As between the United States and China, a comparative perspective is essential in order to provide both a basis for cross cultural understanding of the efforts of each nation, and on that basis to usefully seek lessons form those efforts that might be of use domestically. 

The Conference was attended by media representatives as well. To give a sense of public reaction, this post includes some of the coverage of that meeting by Zhonghongwang (China Macroeconomic Network) Reporter Zhang Quan, as well as in  “Macroeconomic Management” is the official journal of the National Development and Reform Commission.

The reporting that follows include both the中文版 (the original Chinese language version), and with thanks to the marvelous translation skills of Flora Sapio, the English version.  The originals may be accessed  here:
My presentation PowerPoints will follow in a separate post.

Creating a New Pattern of Research on China’s Credit Legislation and Credit Rating From an International Perspective
Zhonghongwang, 25 April 2018

The Seminar Venue
Photo: Zhonghongwang Reporter Zhang Quan

Zhonghongwang – Beijing, April 25 (Reporter Wang Jingyi). This morning, a seminar bringing toether a seminar bringing together senior experts in research on domestic and foreign credit legislation was held at Zhonghongwang. The seminar aimed at drawing from the European and American credit construction experience from an open perspective, and providing references for topics such as research on China’s credit construction, systems creation, and credit evaluation.

Foreign experts attending the seminar included Professor Larry Backer, and Professor Flora Sapio, formerly a honorary fellow at the CIW at the ANU. They respectively reported on the status of the construction of the U.S. and European credit system. Zhu Shaoming, the President of the Foundation for Law and International Affairs, was among the experts attending the seminar.

According to reports, Professor Backer’s presentation on the U.S. credit system was chaired by Professor Shi Xinzhong, director of the Credit Legislation and Credit Evaluation Research Center of Capital Normal University. In the afternoon, Professor Flora Sapio’s presentation on the European credit system was chaired by the director of the Beijing Municipal Academy of Social Sciences Survey and Research Center. Lu Xiaocheng moderated the presentation.

The Chinese experts participating to the seminar include:

Liu Zhaobin. President, China Quality Promotion Association, former General Engineer at AQSIQ

Fang Zhulan. Professor, School of Economics, Renmin University of China

Lin Yuyue. Director, Credit Academic Committee of China Market Society

Han Jiaping. Director, the Institute of Credit Research, Ministry of Commerce

Liu Weiguang. China International E-Commerce Center, Ministry of Commerce

Wang Yong. Researcher, Credit Department, Department of Market Order, Ministry of Commerce

Guo Wenbo. Department of Finance, Department of Credit, National Development and Reform Commission

Han Zhongliang. Researcher, Beijing Academy of Social Sciences

Dou Xiangxiang. Professor of Finance, Peking University

Jing Hua. Secretary General, Beijing Xinxin World Social Innovation Development Center

Sun Ping. Associate Research Fellow, Center for China Rule of Law, East China University of Political Science and Law

Sun Zhiwei. Professor, Beijing University of Materials Science

Xiao Weizhi. Deputy Dean of the Credit Risk Management College of Xiangtan University

Lian Guangyang. Lecturer at the Faculty of Law of Xiangtan University, former a doctoral student at the Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.

Xie Wei. Lecturer at Xiangtan University Law School, Doctor of Law, at the Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy.

Jin Shanming. Associate Researcher, Institute of Law, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

Fu Hongyu. Associate Dean, School of Law, Beijing Foreign Studies University.

Zhang Jinbo. Beijing Changping Science and Technology Park Development Co., Ltd.

Wu Gaochen. Professor and Deputy Dean, School of Politics and Law, Capital Normal University

Xie Xinshui. Professor and Deputy Dean, School of Management, Capital Normal University

Dan Weili. Associate Professor, College of Political Science and Law, Capital Normal University


来源:中宏网时间:2018-04-25 09:59:59
 研讨会现场 摄影/中宏网记者 张泉
  出席本次研讨会的外方专家有美国宾州州立大学法学专家Larry Backer教授、 国问题研究专家 Flora Sapia教授,他们将分别报告美国信用制度建设以及欧洲信用制度建设情况,参加本次研讨会的外方专家还有美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学SJD,法律与国际事务学会主席朱绍明。
  刘兆斌   中国质量万里行促进会会长,原国家质检总局总工程师
  方竹兰   中国人民大学经济学院教授
  林钧跃   中国市场学会信用学术委员会主任
  韩家平   商务部研究院信用研究所所长
  刘伟光   商务部中国国际电子商务中心
  王  勇   商务部市场秩序司信用处调研员
  郭文波   国家发改委财金司信用处
  韩忠亮   北京市社会科学院研究员
  窦尔翔   北京大学金融学教授
  井  华   北京信世界社会创新发展中心秘书长
  孙  平   华东政法大学法治中国建设研究中心副研究员
  孙志伟   北京物资学院教授
  肖伟志    湘潭大学信用风险管理学院副院长
  连光阳    湘潭大学法学院讲师,曾在意大利罗马第二大学修博士课程一年
  谢  蔚    湘潭大学法学院讲师,意大利罗马第一大学法学博士。
  金善明    中国社会科学院法学所副研究员
  傅宏宇    北京外国语大学法学院副院长,美国宾州州立大学JD.
  张金波    北京昌平科技园发展有限公司
  吴高臣    首都师范大学政法学院教授、副院长
  谢新水    首都师范大学管理学院教授、副院长
但未丽    首都师范大学政法学院副教授


Similarities, Differences, Exchanges and Mutual Recognition Between the Chinese and American Credit Construction
Zhonghongwang, 25 April 2018

Professor Larry Backer
Photo: Zhonghongwang Reporter Zhang Quan

Zhonghongwang – Beijing, April 25 (Reporter Wang Jingrong) "After the 19th Congress, social integrity (chengxin) and the integrity of the judiciary have become very important. Especially social integrity, is the component of China’s social credit system on which the largest part of Western studies focus”, stated Professor Larry Backer on April 25, during the Seminar on “The United States and European Credit Systems and their Implications for China”. [He] pointed out how “in China, within the construction of a credit system, social integrity constitutes only a small part. This is where Western countries misunderstand China’s social credit system”.

An American Perspective on the Construction of China's Integrity (chengxin) System

During the seminar, Professor Larry Backer first introduced the characteristics and achievements of China's credit system construction from the perspective of an American legal expert, and he emphasized that two core issued are involved in this system, from its leadership to its implementation. The first one is its systematic, comprehensive top-level design. The second one is strengthening and improving the implementation process through the demonstration and combinations of areas and fields. Larry Backer pointed out that the government is not merely a central leader in decision-making, but it will also play a key role in all key areas. Special attention must be paid to the Party’s core leadership position in the entire issue, and “social credit will become the government’s point of departure in key areas, [and so] government pledges will be respected, and [government] will further supervise the behavior of civil servants.”

The Core Content of the Hidden Construction of Credit in the United States

"In the United States there is no unified platform to collect and monitor credit information credit information.", Professor Larry Backer emphasized in the introduction of the US credit system construction, to provide a reference: "In observing the technical behavior of the US credit system, it should be noted that the issues in its superstructure and ideology (yishi xingtai) are hidden within its technology. This is the opposite of the situation in China”. Larry Backer pointed out that in the West, there is no model similar to China's emerging social credit system. [The Western social credit system] is mainly a model of governance risk management and compliance, which contains three core contents. The first is a data-driven management and control system; then a system for identifying and responding to targeted risks; and a system needed to identify and satisfy legal and social norms, but this is the purpose of the other two aspects. On this basis, technical developments, including supervision, reporting, data collection, integrity packaging and distribution of data, and the linkage between analysis and the principled behavior of targets, are used to formulate reward and punishment systems.

The Ultimate Purpose of the Operation of the U.S. Credit System

Professor Larry Backer combined a case in which a company in Wisconsin in the United States has implanted chips for credit information collection and behavior management in its employees. His analysis pointed out that the guidelines and ultimate purpose of establishing and operating the US credit system are for risk control and compliance. They include, first, at the law enforcement level, a system that can be applied to different aspects, such as a system generated by specific algorithms for different groups of people through data collection. For instance, in the field of law enforcement [such a system] can effectively supervise or control the illegal conducts of some sex offenders. Second, is promoting information transparency, and it is used to supervise the good performance of government and enterprises. Third, in terms of organizational and individual behavior control, behavior control is achieved through credit (xinyong). Fourth, is the influence and the promotion of a credit culture. Larry Backer pointed out that the ultimate goal of these efforts is clarify the responsibilities of individuals, governments or other actors.

The Challenges of U.S. Style Social Credit Construction
Talking about the issue of information collection in the U.S. social credit system, Larry Backer mentioned the management of the Pennsylvania State University through algorithm design and data analysis, pointing out how due to the need for risk management, the school’s hiking association can exist, but it cannot organize hikes. [He pointed out how] the data algorithm is is not neutral, and not biased. “In many cases, there is a supervisory goal behind the application and analysis of data, and it is hoped that a certain result can be achieved through the application of a certain part of the data.”

“Everyone may have discovered two typical characteristics of the US social credit system. One is that there is no unified government supervision; the other is that data analysis and application are entirely market-driven.” Professor Larry Backer also described an analysis of the challenges credit construction in the United States is facing. The first one is the challenge of system construction, including data collection and integrity. The second one is given by management issues, including the coherence of government behavior and the integration of private credit branches, and how to solve the problem of administrative abuse. The third one is given by political issues, such as the integration with political or regulatory standards outside of China, including their application to Chinese companies operating overseas, but also by data collection, data retention, and the integrity of data. The fourth one is an interpretive challenge, including data interpretation and the algorithm itself. The fifth one is whether the review system itself will be damaged by its embedding in the social credit system.

Larry Backer finally pointed out that the relevant components of credit development in the western society are already well developed, but there are still typical differences between the West and China, that is, data is mainly collected on individual business behavior data collection, and there is no unified government supervision. This point is very much different from China.


来源:中宏网时间:2018-04-25 15:55:19

宾州州立大学法学专家Larry Backer教授 摄影/中宏网记者 张泉
  中宏网北京4月25日电(记者王镜榕)“十九大之后,社会诚信和司法诚信变得非常重要,尤其在社会诚信方面,社会诚信是西方人在研究中国社会信用体系关注的最大部分,”在25日召开的首都师范大学“欧美国家信用制度及对中国的启示”研讨会上,来自宾州州立大学法学专家Larry Backer教授指出,“但是在中国,在信用体系建设内部,社会信用体系只是其中很小一部分,这就是中西方对中国社会信用体系理解的偏差的地方”。
  研讨会上,Larry Backer教授首先介绍了一个美国法学专家视角里的中国诚信体系建设的特征与成就,并强调,这个体系从领导到实施,有两个核心问题,一是存在一个系统、全面的顶层设计;二是通过从区域和领域两个方面的示范及其结合,一起来加强和改善实施进程。Larry Backer指出,政府不仅仅是中央性的领导决策,还将在各个关键领域发挥关键性作用,尤其要关注党在整个问题中的核心的领导地位,而“社会信用会成为政府在关键领域的行为的出发点,”使政府的承诺得到尊重,进一步监督公务员的行为。
  “在美国是这样子的,美国并没有统一的收集和监管信用信息的平台,”作为参照,Larry Backer教授在介绍美国信用制度建设时强调,“观察美国的信用制度技术性的行为,应当注意到它的上层建筑和意识形态的问题是隐藏在技术当中,这一点是跟中国的情况相反”。Larry Backer指出,在西方并没有一种类似于中国新兴的社会信用体系的模式,它主要是治理风险管理和合规性模式的体现,包含三个核心内容,第一是在数据驱动下的管理控制系统;再就是用于识别和回应目标风险的系统;再就是识别和满足法律社会规范所需要的系统,但这一点是其他两个方面的目的。在此基础上进行技术性开发,包括监管、报告、数据收集,数据的诚信包装和分配,及分析和目标原则行为之间的联系,据此制定奖惩制度。
  Larry Backer教授结合美国威斯康辛州有一个公司在员工手中植入芯片进行信用信息收集和行为管理的案例,分析指出,在美国信用系统建立和运行的准则和最终目的是为了风险的控制和合规性的目的。包括,第一在执法层面,如通过数据的收集和针对不同人群特定算法产生出来的制度,能够应用在不同的方面。比如在执法领域,可以有效监管或控制一些性侵犯者的违法行为等。第二促成信息透明性,用于督促政府和企业的良好表现。第三在组织和个人行为控制方面,通过信用达到行为控制。第四是信用文化的影响与促成。Larry Backer指出,这些努力在于明确个人、政府或者其他行为主体的责任,这是它的最终目的。
  谈及美国社会信用体系信息收集问题时,Larry Backer结合美国宾州州立大学管理层通过算法设计和数据分析提出,因为风险管控的需要,该校爬山社团可以存在,但是不能爬山的案例,指出,数据算法并非中立,不带偏向性,“很多情况下,通过数据的应用和分析存在一个主管目标,希望通过对某一部分数据的应用达到某一个结果。”
  “大家可能已经发现美国社会信用制度很典型的两个特征,一是没有政府统一监管;再就是数据分析和应用完全是靠市场主导的。”Larry Backer教授还阐述了他对美国信用建设面临挑战的分析:第一是系统建设的挑战,包括数据的收集和完整性。第二是管理问题,包括政府行为连贯性以及私人信用分支的融合,如何解决行政滥用的问题。三是政治问题,比如说如何与中国以外的政治或者规范标准能够融合,包括如何适用在海外运营的中国企业,还有数据收集,数据保留和收据的完整性。四是解释性的挑战,包括数据解释以及算法本身都存在挑战。五是审查系统本身是否嵌入社会信用体系过程中会受到损害。
  Larry Backer最后指出,在西方社会信用发展相关的组成部分已经很发达了,但是西方和中国还存在典型区别,即,其数据主要针对个人的商业行为数据收集,并没有政府的统一监管,这一点是跟中国很大的不同。

Capital Normal University Seminar on Credit and Rule of Law held at Zhonghongwang: the European and American Credit Systems and their Implications for China.
Zhonghongwang, 25 April 2018

In the morning of April 25, a Capital Normal University Seminar on Credit and Rule of Law was held at Zhonghongwang. The picture below shows the conference venue. Experts are eagerly speaking on “European and America’s country credit systems and their implications for China”. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

Foreign expert Professor Larry Backer elaborated on his views and patiently and enthusiastically communicated with Chinese experts. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan

Professor Flora Sapio, formerly at the CIW ANU during the seminar. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

The experts and professors expressing their opinions. The atmosphere of the venue was warm, the results were very good, and considerable. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

Chinese experts spoke positively and exchanged their views with foreign experts on the achievements made by the country’s credit legal system, and on the issues existing at the current state. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

Chinese experts spoke positively and exchanged their views with foreign experts on the achievements made by the country’s credit legal system, and on the issues existing at the current state. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

Professor Shi Xinzhong, director of the Credit Legislation and Credit Evaluation Research Center of Capital Normal University moderated the seminar. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

The research seminar was very successful. After the meeting, the experts took a group picture. Picture by Zhonghongwang reporter Zhang Quan.

[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]

外方专家美国宾州州立大学法学专家Larry Backer教授,阐述自己的观点,并耐心与中方专家积极交流。中宏网记者张泉摄影报道。

[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]

外方专家澳大利亚大学中国问题研究中心Flora Sapia教授参加研讨会。中宏网记者张泉摄影报道。

[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


[ 责任编辑:谢珍孝 ]


European Expert Flora Sapio: Private Credit Data Influences Public Policy?!

Professor Flora Sapio during the seminar
Zhonghongwang, 26 April 2018

Zhonghongwang – Beijing, April 25 (Reporter Wang Jingrong). Professor Flora Sapio, formerly a honorary fellow at CIW, while attending the seminar said that in Europe the concept of “credit” mainly refers to credit itself, rather than to social credit. One obvious difference is that Europe does not have a holistic way to regulate the credit system. Credit repair is also a relatively new issue in Europe. For example, the legal regulation of the collection, analysis and use of personal data is still being improved in the 28 countries of the EU.
In Europe, Credit Data is Dominated by the Private Sector

As researcher on China issues, Professor Flora Sapio paid a high attention to China Planning Outline on the Construction of a Social Credity System 2014 - 2020 (hereinafter referred to as the " Outline "), and she translated important documents from the central government and various ministries and commissions in English, to introduce them to the English speaking world. In her view, to understand the characteristics of China's credit construction, the opening sentence of the "Outline" - "The social credit system is an important part of the socialist market economic system and social governance system." - is critical. Flora Sapio believes that even though China’s social credit system is very comprehensive, it still belongs to part of the socialist economic system. It is also composed of four parts: laws, regulations, standards, and contracts. Flora Sapio stressed that "in China this is a very systematic, top-down system. "

Flora Sapio believes that social credit as a social mechanism depends on data collection, data analysis, data sharing between the government and the private sector, as well as the evaluation of business behavior, and the resulting reward and punishment system. In Europe, the same functions exist, but these functions exist in a completely different form. In Europe, they mainly refer to Big Data in the market and the management of big data. In the public sector, there is also the government's management of data. These two parts are independent. When we discuss data collection, analysis, and algorithms, these behaviors are first guided by the private sector in the market and gradually used by the public sector. The way these data are generated depends to a large extent on individuals in the market who actively share these data.

In Europe, How Does Data Affect the Public Sector?
Flora Sapio, by citing the Cambridge Analytica scandal involving the Brexit campaign in the United Kingdom, and how the analysis of data gathered through the social network platform Facebook may be used to influence public voting, noted how this type of information collection and analysis is highly controversial, because it involves some issues that go beyond privacy, including who has the right to collect this information and who has the right to apply this information. Flora Sapio pointed out how these problems are largely left to the private sector, and how the law should regulated them should be further explored. So far, this problem has not yet been resolved in the 28 countries of the European Union.

Flora Sapio said that data has largely become a form of social wealth. This kind of social wealth is based on data analysis. Such social wealth has so far only existed in the private sector, but it has to a large extent influenced the public sector. Flora Sapio believes that this is a very central issue, and the private sector can greatly influence public choice. For example, in Britain's withdrawal from the European Union, many procedures are regulated by law, but the broader process was influenced by data algorithms. Basically, it was driven by data algorithms and analysis. This may be the most controversial example. Moreover, at the legal level in Europe, very little legislation covers the issue just mentioned.

How Does Credit Repair Work in Europe?

Credit repair in the United States is an independent industry, but it is relatively new in Europe. The whole system exists to a large extent in the private sector. This involves some normative principles within the EU. The state, as the maker of legal norms, does not directly interfere with the operation of the market. For example, in the field of consumer credit, this work mainly relies on credit rating agencies, and the business covers almost all of Europe. When it rises to the level of regulation, the state cares more about personal privacy and the management of this data. This is related to the quality of data and the collection of data, which are regulated by agreements between consumers and credit agencies.

"The use of standardized information to correct wrong credit information does not exist in the law" said Flora Sapio. Credit rating agencies create personal consumer profiles for consumers, gathering information about consumers on social networks, data from mobile and online payments. These data generally speaking belongs to individuals and to private actors. Negative information is stored in data systems for more or less long periods of time, which do not depend on the consent of consumers.

Flora Sapio said that in practice, negative information may be shared, and even if the consumer corrects his behavior, this information may remain on the record, which becomes a factor that is detrimental to consumers. How to solve this problem? Flora Sapio pointed out that credit restoration in Europe is not as prevalent in the United States. In general, the first step is for consumers to get in touch with relevant agencies, correct or update information, but this can be difficult in pratice. Another way is to rely on traditional mechanisms of dispute resolution to obtain an order and renew credit scores and credit records.

Flora Sapio emphasized that there are also significant differences within Europe. For example, there is a wide difference between the United Kingdom and civil law countries. In the UK, various types of credit records are used more widely than in other civil law countries. In the EU, credit repair as a mechanism itself is still relatively new, and less developed than in the United States.

来源:中宏网时间:2018-04-26 16:46:46
Flora Sapio(右二)在研讨会上
  中宏网北京4月26日电(记者王镜榕)4月25日,Flora Sapio在出席论坛时表示,在欧洲,“信用”概念主要是信用本身,而非社会信用;一个明显的不同,欧洲没有整体性的规范信用体系的方法,而信用修复在欧洲也是一项比较新兴的事务,比如涉及个人隐私的数据收集、分析及使用,在法律层面如何规制,在欧盟包括欧洲的28个国家内尚待面对和完善。
  作中国问题研究专家,Flora Sapio教授对中国正在实施的《2014—2020社会信用体系发展建设规划纲要》(以下简称“纲要”)高度关注,她甚至将从中央到各部委的有关重要文件全部翻译成英文,向英语世界介绍。在她看来,理解中国信用建设的特质,《纲要》开篇第一句非常关键,即,“社会信用体系是社会主义市场经济体制和社会治理体制的重要组成部分。”Flora Sapio认为,在中国,社会信用制度虽然很全面,但它仍然属于社会主义经济体制的一部分。它本身也由法律、法规和标准以及契约四个部分组成。Flora Sapio强调,“在中国这是一个非常系统性的,从上到下的体制。”
  Flora Sapio认为,社会信用作为一种社会机制它依赖于数据收集,数据分析,政府与私营部门之间的数据分享,以及对商业行为的评级,以及由此而产生的奖惩制度。在欧洲,相同的功能也是存在的,但是这种功能是以一种完全不同的形式存在。在欧洲主要是指在市场中的大数据和对大数据的管理,在公共领域也有政府对数据的管理,这两个部分是独立的。当我们讨论数据的收集、分析、及算法的时候,这些行为首先是在市场中由私立部门引导,逐渐由公共部门使用。这些数据产生的方式很大程度上依赖于市场上的个人,他们主动的分享这些数据。
  Flora Sapio通过引证剑桥分析公司在英国脱离欧盟过程中,通过对Facebook社交平台收集到数据的情感分析,可能被利用影响公众投票的案例,指出,这种信息收集和分析方式是很有争议性的,因为其中涉及一些超越隐私的问题,包括谁有权收集这些信息,谁有权去应用这些信息。Flora Sapio指出,这些问题很大程度上留给了私有部门,并且应当由人们进一步探讨法律应该如何进一步规制,到目前为止,在欧盟,包括欧洲的28个国家内尚未解决。
  Flora Sapio表示,数据已经很大程度上变成了一种社会财富,这种社会财富基于数据分析产生,这种社会财富到目前为止还只存在于私有部门当中,但在很大程度上影响着公有领域。Flora Sapio认为,这是一个非常核心的问题,私有领域可以很大程度上影响公众的选择。比如在英国退出欧盟这件事上,很多程序是有法律规制的,但是整个过程却是被数据算法影响着,基本上就是由数据的算法和分析而引导,这也许是一个最具争议的例子。而且,在欧洲的法律层面,很少立法覆盖我们刚才说的这些问题。
  “以标准化信息去纠正错误的信用信息,在法律当中还不存在,”Flora Sapio表示,这些信用机构在给消费者建立个人的消费档案,信息来源于消费者在社交网络的信息,以及移动支付数据。这些数据信息总体而言是属于私人和私有部门的,负面信息会永远保存在数据系统,不需要得到消费者同意就可以保存。
  Flora Sapio表示,在实践中,这种负面消息会被分享,就算消费者改正了他的行为,这个记录还是会保存在案,这就变成对消费者很不利的因素。这个问题怎么解决?Flora Sapio指出,在欧洲的信用修复并不如在美国盛行,一般而言,第一步是消费者跟信用机构取得联系,修正被错误保存的信息或进一步更新信息,但是在实践中会很困难。另一个办法,就是依赖传统的仲裁机构,获得裁判令,重新更新信用分数和信用记录。
  Flora Sapio强调,在欧洲之内也存在很大区别,比如英国和其他大陆法系国家存在很大区别,在英国这种信用记录被应用的比其他大陆法系国家应用的广泛。在英国,信用修复作为一种机制本身其实还是相当新的,绝对没有像在美国一样发达。




About China Macroeconomic Network (Zhonghongwang)

China Macroeconomic Network is a new media of the National Development and Reform Commission, hosted by the editorial department of “Macroeconomic Management”. China Macroeconomic Network has created a window on the State’s economic development, fulfilling its work of reporting on the National Development and Reform Commission.

The editorial department of “China Macroeconomic Management” started the construction of China Macroeconomic Network in August 2015, and the website was officially launched on 1 January 2016.

About the Journal “Macroeconomic Management”

Macroeconomic Management” is the official journal of the National Development and Reform Commission. It was created 1985 through a directive of Comrade Song Ping, the then chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission, to provide a major public opinion propaganda front on the field of macroeconomics. The journal mainly researches and explores major issues in the opeartion of the national economy, national industrial policies, major orientations in investments, reforms of the economic system, the compilation of long-term national economic and social plans, and their implementation.

Since its publication, “Macroeconomic Management” has received support and help in its growth and development from each one of the chairmen of the National Development and Reform Commission. It has been given care and affection. Comrades Song Ping, Fang Weizhong, Zeng Peiyan have served as editors for the journal, and under their leadership and care, the journal has upheld a correct public opinion orientation for a long time, playing a major role in publicizing the Party line and national macroeconomic policies, receiving broad consideration from social circles, and being designated as a major reading item to be delivered to central leaders.

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