Speech at the Meeting Celebrating the 40th Anniversary of Reform and Opening Up
18 December 2018
 “Liberate ideology, seek truth from facts, unite and look forward” (Jiefang sixiang, shishi qiushi, tuanjie yizhi xianqian kan) in The Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 2 (Deng Xiaoping Wenxuan di’erjuan), pp. 140- 153. Beijing: People’s Press (Renmin Chubanshe), 1994. Quotation at page 150. Translation mine. This quote is from a speech Deng Xiaoping delivered on December 13, 1978, before a closed-doors meeting of the Work Committee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The Work Committee was the institution responsible for organizing the plenary sessions of the Central Committee. Shortly after this closed-doors meeting, Deng’s speech would become the “topical report” (zhuti baogao) delivered by Deng before the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
 ”Construct Socialism with Chinese characteristics” (Jianshe you Zhongguo tesede shehuizhuyi) in The Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3 (Deng Xiaoping Wenxuan disan juan), pp. 62-66. Beijing: People’s Press (Renmin Chubanshe), 1994. Quotation at page 64.
 “The pace of reform has to accelerate” (Gaigede buzi yao jiakuai) in The Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Volume 3 (Deng Xiaoping Wenxuan disan juan), pp. 236-243. Beijing: People’s Press (Renmin Chubanshe), 1994. Quotation at page 242.
 “艰难困苦，玉汝于成” in the original. This is a paraphrasis of a quote (富贵福泽，将厚吾之生也；贫贱忧戚，庸玉女于成也) from the work “Correcting Ignorance” (正蒙, Zhengmeng) of the Neo-Confucian scholar Zhang Zai (1020 – 1077). “Correcting Ignorance” was completed in 1076, during Zhang Zai’s voluntary retirement from the politics of the Northern Sung Dynasty. Zhang Zai’s most important contribution to Chinese philosophy were in metaphysics and in his theory of qi (vital force).
 天堑变通途 (tianqian biantong tu), or “a deep chasm has turned to a thoroughfare” in the original. This is a verse from the poem “Swimming”, composed by Mao Zedong in June 1956. See “Swimming”, The Maoist Documentation Project, https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/poems/poems23.htm
 春风化雨、春华秋实 in the original. This is a quotation inspired by the Biography of Xing Yong, Kingdom of Wei, Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi, Weishu, Xing Yongzhuan). Together with the Historical Records (Shiji), the Book of Han (Hanshu), and the Book of the Later Han (Houhanshu), the Records of the Three Kingdoms is one of the official dynastic histories of China. Authored by Chen Shou (233-297), the book records the history of the kingdoms of Shu, Wu and Wei.
 行之力则知愈进，知之深则行愈达 in the original. This quotation is from the preface to the “Explanation of the Analects of Confucius” (Lunyujie), a philosophical text authored during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127 – 1279) by the Neo-confucian scholar Zhang Shi.
 Friedrich Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. Edward Aveling transl. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2008. The quotation is from the first paragraph in Chapter 3, Historical Materialism.
 Lu Xun, “Casual Annotation No. 66” (Suiganlu 66), in Hot Wind (Refeng), Beijing: Renmin Wenxue Chubanshe, 1973.
 A concept originally expressed in “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War”, as follows:
“The Chinese Communist Party is a party leading a great revolutionary struggle in a nation several hundred million strong, and it cannot fulfil its historic task without a large number of leading cadres who combine ability with political integrity.”See Mao Zedong, “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War”, October 1938, The Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 2, Peking, People’s Publishing House, 1960, at p. 195 and ff.
 Combining ability and political integrity and placing morality first are concepts that were already expressed in the Resolution of the Central Committee on Some Major Problems in Strengthening and Improving Party Building Under New Circumstances (Zhonggong Zhongyang guanyu jiaqiang he gaijin xin xingshixia dangde jianshe zhongda wentide jueding) (19 September 2009).
 This concept, too, can be found in the writings of Mao Zedong: “Throughout our national history there have been two sharply contrasting lines on the subject of the use of cadres, one being to "appoint people on their merit", and the other to "appoint people by favouritism". The former is the honest and the latter the dishonest way. The criterion the Communist Party should apply in its cadres policy is whether or not a cadre is resolute in carrying out the Party line, keeps to Party discipline, has close ties with the masses, has the ability to find his bearings independently, and is active, hard-working and unselfish. This is what "appointing people on their merit" means. The cadres policy of Chang Kuo-tao was the exact opposite. Following the line of "appointing people by favouritism," he gathered personal favourites round himself to form a small clique, and in the end he turned traitor to the Party and decamped. This is an important lesson for us. Taking warning from it and from similar historical lessons, the Central Committee and the leaders at all levels must make it their major responsibility to adhere to the honest and fair way in cadres policy and reject the dishonest and unfair way, and so consolidate the unity of the Party”. Mao Zedong, “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War”, October 1938, The Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 2, Peking, People’s Publishing House, 1960, at p. 195 and ff.
 海晏河清 in the original. This is a traditional idiomatic expression (chengyu) that can be translated also as “the world is at peace”. On the verses “the sea is quiet and the rivers are clear” see Xiang Xianbiao, “The Right Time for the World Being at Peace”, (Haiyan heqing zhengdangshi), China Army Network (Zhongguo Junwang), 21 November 2017, http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2017-11/21/content_192370.htm
 This is an explicit reference to Deng Xiaoping’s approach to reform. The slogan “crossing the river by feeling for the stones”, however, was coined by Chen Yun
“We must reform, but we must move gradually. Because the issues in our reform are complex, we cannot ask for haste. Reform must of course depend on certain theoretical research, economic statistics, and economic forecasting, but more importantly we must start from pilot sites and summarize our experience at various times, that is “crossing the river by feeling for the stones”. The first steps must be small, and we will move slowly”.See Chen Yun, “The State of the Economy and the Lessons of Experience” (16 December 1980) (Jingji xingshi yu jingyan jiaoxun), in Chen Yun, The Selected Works of Chen Yun, Volume 3 (Chen Yun Wenxuan disanjuan) Beijing, Renmin Chubanshe, 1986, pp. 276-282.
 周虽旧邦，其命维新 in the original. This has also been translated as “although Zhou was an old country, it received a new destiny”. See for instance:
“Establish Xiang, Xu, Xue, and Xiao, all those educational institutions, for the instruction of the people. The name Xiang indicates nourishing as its object; Xiao, indicates teaching; and Xu indicates archery. By the Xia dynasty the name Xiao was used; by the Yin, that of Xu; and by the Zhou, that of Xiang. As to the Xue, they belonged to the three dynasties, and by that name. The object of them all is to illustrate the human relations. When those are thus illustrated by superiors, kindly feeling will prevail among the inferior people below. Should a real sovereign arise, he will certainly come and take an example from you; and thus you will be the teacher of the true sovereign. It is said in the Book of Poetry, “Although Zhou was an old country, It received a new destiny.” That is said with reference to king Wen. Do you practise those things with vigour, and you also will by them make new your kingdom.”James Legge, The Chinese Classics: With a Translation, Critical and Exegetical Notes, Prolegomena, and Copious Indexes, SMC Publicating, 1991, p. 243.
 治世不一道，便国不法古 in the original. This has also been translated as “There is more than one way to govern the world, and there is no necessity to imitate antiquity, in order to take appropriate measures for the state”. See J. J.-L. Duyvendak, The Book of Lord Shang, Éditions Arthur Probsthain, Londres, 1928, p. 15.
 天下大同 in the original. This expression can be found in a variety of post-Han texts, and can also be translated as “harmony for all that which exists under heaven”, meaning in the world.
 协和万邦 in the original. An expression common in Pre-Qin texts, this has also been translated as uniting and harmonizing several states. See, for instance:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Yao was styled Fang-xun. He was reverential, intelligent, accomplished, and thoughtful - naturally and without effort. He was sincerely courteous, and capable of (all) complaisance. The bright (influence of these qualities) was felt through the four quarters (of the land), and reached to (heaven) above and (earth) beneath. He made the able and virtuous distinguished, and thence proceeded to the love of (all in) the nine classes of his kindred, who (thus) became harmonious. He (also) regulated and polished the people (of his domain), who all became brightly intelligent. (Finally), he united and harmonized the myriad states; and so the black-haired people were transformed. The result was (universal) concord.James Legge, The Chinese Classics Volume III, The Shoo King or The Book of Historical Documents, London, Trübner & Co., 1865, p. 15.
 万国衣冠 in the original. This is part of a verse from Wang Wei’s poem “Morning Audience at the Daming Palace With Imperial Scribe Jia”, composed during the Tang Dynasty:
With crimson headdresses, palace time keepers deliver counters at daybreakSee “Wang Wei: Morning Audience in the Daming Palace With Imperial Scribe Jia”, available at http://www.learnancientchinesepoetry.org/2016/11/01/wang-wei-morning-audience-in-the-daming-palace/
Everyone wearing the imperial audience clothes, emerald-green bird feather coats
Door after door, ascending to the last one, big door to a large room
From all over the empire to pay respect to the emperor’s crown
Sun arrives, shadows from the candleholders moving
Fragrant incense, all desire to be close to his ceremonial robe, a dragon that appears to emerge as he walks
Court dismissed, we now have to make the rainbow-colored imperial documents
The sounds from our jade, while walking back to the work table in our office.
 天行健，君子以自强不息 in the original. This is a reference to hexagram Qian in the Book of Changes:
In the third line, undivided, (we see its subject as) the superior man active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. (The position is) dangerous, but there will be no mistake.Jamese Legge, The Sacred Books of China, The I Ching, Second Edition Facsimile. New York: Dover Publications, 1899, p. 57.
 地势坤，君子以厚德载物 in the original. Another reference to the Book of Changes, this time to “comment to the images” of hexagram Kun:
The (capacity and sustaining) power of the earth is what is denoted by Kun. The superior man, in accordance with this, with his large virtue supports (men and) thingsJamese Legge, Supra, p. 268.
 咬定青山不放松 in the original. This is a verse from Zheng Xie’s (1693-1765) poem Bamboo and the Rocks.
 事者，生于虑，成于务，失于傲 in the original. This is a reference to the “On Military Taxes” chapter of the Guanzi, which section “On Paying Attention to Markets and Production” reads:
The marketplace determines the value of goods. Hence, if goods are kept cheap, there will be no exorbitant profits. If there are no exorbitant profits, production will be well organized, and if it is well organized, expenditures will be properly controlled. Now production materializes through planning, succeeds through diligent attention, but fails through negligence. Unless there is negligence, there will be no failure. Therefore it is said that the marketplace may know order or disorder, abundance or scarcity. However, it is incapable of bringing about abundance or scarcity on its own. There is a proper way to manage markets and production.W. Allyn Rickett, Guanzi, Political, Economic and Philosophical Essays From Early China, Volume I, Revised Edition, Boston: Cheng & Tsui Company, 2001, p. 119. Italics mine.
 惊涛拍岸 in the original. This is a verse from the Tang Dynasty poem “Missing the Songstress – Remembering the [Battle of] Red Cliffs” by Su Shi (1036-1101). Fought between the overwhelming forces of Cao Cao on one side, and those of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, the Battle of Red Cliffs gradually led to the end of the Han dynasty, and the beginning of the period of the Three Kingdoms.
 九万里风鹏正举 in the original. This is a reference to the mythical Peng bird:
“In the Northern Darkness there is a fish and his name is Kun. The Kun is so huge I don’t know how many thousand li he measures. He changes and becomes a bird whose name is Peng. The back of Peng measures I don’t know how many thousand li across and, when he rises up and flies off, his wings are like clouds all over the sky. When the sea begins to move, the bird sets off for the southern darkness, which is the lake of Heaven”.Robert Elliott Allinson, Chuang-Tzu for Spiritual Transformation: An Analysis of the Inner Chapters, p. 41.