How does Xi understand dialectical materialism? Historical materialism provides the conceptual framework for rationalizing (that is for the scientific approach) to the normative basis for societal organization and the trajectory of its evolution. But historical materialism is passive. It invites positioning within its course of development but does not suggest any power to mold or manage that inevitable progress. Something else is necessary. That “something else” is supplied by the relate notion of dialectical materialism. It also suggests a consequential insight—that to be on the “right side of history” a vanguard must anticipate and shape its own projection into history in accordance with the times and sensitive to the course of historical development (the Leninists are not the only ones to embrace these progressive notions of history and its consequences, though not its inherent connection to material conditions; see, e.g., Benn Shapiro, The Right Side of History). If historical material provides the theory of historical development grounded in the constant need to resolve the inherent contradictions of the material conditions of individuals (and groups now) within societal organization at every stage of social development, then dialectical materialism suggests the structures within which a leadership group (a vanguard however composed and organized) can intervene in that progress of history to manage it to an inevitable end. It provides a rational basis to justify the intervention of a leading group to manage the inevitable course of historical progress toward its ultimate goal.
来源：《求是》2020/02 作者：习近平 2020-01-15 15:20:31
中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议，于2013年11月9日至12日在北京举行。全会由中央政治局主持，中央委员会总书记习近平作重要讲话。 新华社记者 兰红光/摄历史唯物主义作为马克思主义哲学的重要组成部分，是关于人类社会发展一般规律的科学。在革命、建设、改革各个历史时期，我们党运用历史唯物主义，系统、具体、历史地分析中国社会运动及其发展规律，在认识世界和改造世界过程中不断把握规律、积极运用规律，推动党和人民事业取得了一个又一个胜利。毛泽东同志提出的以农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的道路，我们党带领人民进行艰辛的社会主义建设探索，新的历史时期我们党科学分析我国社会主要矛盾、果断决定把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放，都是正确运用历史唯物主义的结果。我们党在实践中不断回答“什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义”、“建设什么样的党、怎样建设党”、“实现什么样的发展、怎样发展”这些重大历史性课题，也都是正确运用历史唯物主义的结果。历史和现实都表明，只有坚持历史唯物主义，我们才能不断把对中国特色社会主义规律的认识提高到新的水平，不断开辟当代中国马克思主义发展新境界。
坚持和发展中国特色社会主义，必须不断适应社会生产力发展调整生产关系，不断适应经济基础发展完善上层建筑。改革开放35年来，我国经济社会发展取得了重大成就，根本原因就是我们通过不断调整生产关系激发了社会生产力发展活力，通过不断完善上层建筑适应了经济基础发展要求。我们进行经济体制改革，进行政治体制、文化体制、社会体制、生态文明体制和党的建设制度改革，都是出于这个目的。中国共产党第十九届中央委员会第四次全体会议，于2019年10月28日至31日在北京举行。这是习近平、李克强、栗战书、汪洋、王沪宁、赵乐际、韩正等在主席台上。 新华社记者 申宏/摄
2018年4月26日下午，中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在武汉主持召开深入推动长江经济带发展座谈会并发表重要讲话。这是座谈会前，习近平于24日下午在三峡大坝左岸电站同技术人员、劳动模范、工作人员代表亲切交流。 新华社记者 谢环驰/摄这里，我还要说到一个问题。马克思、恩格斯运用社会基本矛盾推动社会发展的规律，对未来社会发展作出了科学预见。《共产党宣言》提出：“资产阶级的灭亡和无产阶级的胜利是同样不可避免的。”这就是“两个必然”，是就人类历史总的发展趋势而言的，是历史规律的必然指向。这里还要说到马克思提出的“两个决不会”，马克思说：“无论哪一个社会形态，在它所能容纳的全部生产力发挥出来以前，是决不会灭亡的；而新的更高的生产关系，在它的物质存在条件在旧社会的胎胞里成熟以前，是决不会出现的。”马克思的这一重要论点，可以帮助我们理解为什么资本主义至今没有完全消亡，为什么社会主义还会出现苏联解体、东欧剧变那样的曲折，为什么马克思主义预见的共产主义还需要经过很长的历史发展才能实现。学懂了这一认识和研究社会历史发展的科学世界观和方法论，我们就能坚定理想的主心骨、筑牢信念的压舱石，保持强大的战略定力。我们要坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信，不断提高我国社会生产力发展水平和人民生活水平，使我国社会主义制度优越性不断显现和丰富起来，使中国特色社会主义道路越走越宽广。
Persist in Historical Materialism and Open up New Realms of Contemporary Chinese Marxism Development
Source: "Seeking Truth" 2020/02 Author: Xi Jinping 2020-01-15 15:20:31
Persist in Historical Materialism and Open up New Realms of Contemporary Chinese Marxism Development
Marxist philosophy includes dialectical materialism and historical materialism. It is a concentrated reflection of Marxist positions, viewpoints, and methods, and is the ideological basis of Marxist theory. Marx said: "Any true philosophy is the spiritual essence of his time." Although Marxist philosophy was born more than a century and a half ago, because it deeply reveals the general laws of the development of the objective world, especially human society, it has been proven by history and practice to be a scientific theory. A powerful ideological weapon for people to move forward.
Our Party has attached great importance to building the Party ideologically since its establishment. One of the most important is to insist on using Marxist philosophy to educate and arm the entire Party. Learning philosophy and using philosophy is a good tradition of our party. In the summer of 1937, Comrade Mao Zedong was invited to teach the Marxist philosophy in Yanan at the invitation of the Anti-Japanese Military and Political University, and wrote "Dialectical Materialism (Lecture Outline)" for this purpose. In the process of writing this outline, important philosophical works such as "Practical Theory" and "Contradiction" which embody the theoretical results of Marxist Sinicization were born.
Since the founding of the Central Party School in 1933, Marxist philosophy has been a basic course for cadre training. When I was concurrently the principal of the Central Party School, I repeatedly emphasized that the Party school should take Marxist philosophy as its main curriculum. On May 13, 2009, at the opening ceremony of the second batch of refresher classes and special seminars in the spring semester of 2009 at the Central Party School, I quoted a quote from Comrade Chen Yun. "The most important thing to study the theory is to think The method is right. Therefore, we must first learn philosophy and learn how to observe problems correctly. If we do n’t know anything about dialectical materialism, we will always make mistakes. ”I also recommend that you read some basic works of Marxist philosophy and master the scientific worldview and methodology Continue to enhance the principled, systematic, predictive and creative work.
第三 The third plenary session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing from November 9th to 12th, 2013. The plenary session was chaired by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, and Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee made an important speech. Xinhua News Agency reporter Lan Hongguang / Photo
Historical materialism, as an important part of Marxist philosophy, is a science about the general laws of the development of human society. In each historical period of revolution, construction, and reform, our party uses historical materialism to analyze the Chinese social movement and its development laws systematically, specifically, and historically. In the process of understanding the world and transforming the world, we constantly grasp the laws and actively use them to promote the party. And the people's cause has won one victory after another. The road proposed by Comrade Mao Zedong to surround the city with the countryside and seize power with the armed forces, our party led the people to carry out an arduous exploration of socialist construction. In the new historical period, our party scientifically analyzed the major contradictions in our society, and decided to transfer the party and state work centers Economic construction and reform and opening up are the results of the correct application of historical materialism. In practice, our party constantly answers the major historical issues of "what is socialism, how to build socialism", "what kind of party to build, how to build party", and "what kind of development is achieved and how to develop". The correct application of the results of historical materialism. Both history and reality have shown that only by adhering to historical materialism can we continuously improve our understanding of the laws of socialism with Chinese characteristics to a new level and constantly open up new realms for the development of contemporary Chinese Marxism.
At present, we still need to promote the entire party to learn Marxist philosophy, and we still need to promote the entire party to master the basic principles and methodologies of historical materialism. The purpose of studying is to better understand the national conditions, better understand the development trend of the cause of the party and the state, better understand the laws of historical development, and more actively promote various tasks. In 1942, Comrade Mao Zedong delivered an important speech at the opening ceremony of the Central Party School, entitled "Rectifying the Party's Style." He pointed out that we must call on our comrades to learn to apply Marxist-Leninist positions, viewpoints, and methods, to study China ’s history, to study China ’s economy, politics, military, and culture, and to analyze each issue based on detailed materials. , And then draw theoretical conclusions. He also emphasized: "We should not take Marxist theory as dead dogma. For Marxist theory, we must be able to master it and apply it. The purpose of mastery is all about application. If you can apply Marxist-Leninist views, explain One or two practical issues, then you have to be praised, even if you have a few grades. The more you explain, the more common, the more profound, the greater your grade. "We must also persist in studying historical materialism. Such a correct attitude.
存在 Social existence determines social consciousness. The theories, guidelines, and policies proposed and implemented by our party at this stage are correct because they are based on the social existence of our country in the current era. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made overall arrangements for China's comprehensive deepening reform. It started from the current social existence of our country, that is, from the total of our current social material conditions, that is, from China's basic national conditions and development requirements. Set off.
Below, I would like to combine today's study with a deep understanding of the comprehensive reform rules and better implementation of various reform measures.
First, learn and master the analysis of basic contradictions in society, and deeply understand the importance and urgency of comprehensively deepening reforms. In 1883, Engels said in front of Marx's tomb: "Just as Darwin discovered the development law of the organic world, Marx discovered the development law of human history, which is a simple fact that has always been covered by a multitude of ideology: people must first Eat, drink, live, wear, and then engage in politics, science, art, religion, and so on; therefore, direct production of material means of living, and thus a certain stage of economic development of a nation or an era, form the basis for people. The state facilities, legal viewpoints, arts, and religious concepts have been developed from this foundation. Therefore, they must also be interpreted from this foundation, rather than doing the opposite as in the past. " The basic connotation of historical materialism. The ancient Chinese said that "people rely on food as their heavens", "cangjie knows etiquette, and food and clothing knows honor and disgrace", etc., also contain such simple materialism.
Historical materialism believes that the interaction and mutual restraint of productive forces and production relations, economic foundations and superstructures dominate the entire social development process. Production relations must be suitable for productive forces, and superstructures must be suitable for economic fundamentals. Their combined effect constitutes a contradictory movement in the entire society. Only by observing the contradictory movements of productivity and production relations with the contradictory movements of economic foundations and superstructures, and observing the basic contradictions of society as a whole, can we fully grasp the basic outlook and development direction of the entire society.
第四 The fourth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing from October 28 to 31, 2019. This is Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, Han Zheng, etc. on the podium. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Hong / photo
To adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, we must continuously adapt to the development of social productive forces, adjust production relations, and constantly adapt to the development of the economic foundation to improve the superstructure. In the 35 years since the reform and opening up, China has made great achievements in economic and social development. The fundamental reason is that we have stimulated the vitality of social productive forces by continuously adjusting production relations, and have continuously adapted the superstructure to meet the requirements of economic foundation development. We have reformed the economic system, reformed the political system, cultural system, social system, ecological civilization system, and party building system for this purpose.
We propose to carry out comprehensive and deepening reforms in order to adapt to changes in the basic contradictions in our society and promote social development. Basic social contradictions are always developing, so adjusting production relations and improving superstructures needs to be continued accordingly. I have said that there is no end to practical development, there is no end to emancipating the mind, and there is no end to reform and opening up. Reform and opening up can only be carried out and not completed. This is the historical materialist attitude.
Second, learn and grasp the point that material production is the basis of social life, and accurately grasp the important relationship of comprehensively deepening reform. Historical materialism holds that material productivity is the material premise of all social life, and that the sum of production relations that are compatible with a certain stage of productive force development constitutes the socioeconomic foundation. Productive force is the most active and revolutionary factor in promoting social progress, and the development of productive forces is a fundamental criterion for measuring social development. This provides a reliable basis for our analysis of social development.
11On November 13, 2018, party and state leaders Xi Jinping, Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, Han Zheng, Wang Qishan, etc. visited the National Museum of China "Great Change-Large Exhibition Celebrating the 40th Anniversary of Reform and Opening Up". Xinhua News Agency reporter Xie Huanchi / photo
We must make clear that the fundamental task of socialism is to liberate and develop social productive forces. This cannot be shaken at any time. Comrade Deng Xiaoping answered the fundamental question of "What is socialism and how to build socialism", mainly to answer the fundamental task of socialism. "Socialism has many tasks, but the fundamental one is to develop productive forces." "For many years, we have suffered a big loss, and the socialist transformation has basically been completed. We still" take class struggle as the key link "and ignore the development of productive forces. The" Cultural Revolution "has gone to the extreme. Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, the whole party has The focus of work has shifted to the construction of socialist modernization. On the basis of adhering to the four basic principles, we must concentrate our efforts on the development of social productive forces. This is the most fundamental of allocating disorder. "
全面 In the comprehensive deepening of reforms, we must adhere to the major strategic judgment that development is still the key to solving all problems in China, so that the market plays a decisive role in the allocation of resources and better plays the role of the government to promote the continuous development of China's social productive forces. We say that we should not simply talk about heroes based on the growth rate of GDP. We must look at the overall level of work, that is, we must develop in accordance with the law of the development of productive forces, and not act violently. We must correctly use productivity standards to promote the unification of continuous enrichment and the all-round development of people.
Although material production is the basis of social life, superstructures can also react to economic foundations. There is a very complex relationship between productivity and production relations, economic foundations, and superstructures. The actual processes that have effects and reactions are not single-line. Simple decision and decision logic.
的 Things in the world are always connected in one way or another. The development of things cannot be viewed in isolation. Otherwise, the problem of blindness and generalization will often occur. It is the so-called "with or without each other, easy and difficult to form, long and short form, high and low phase inclination, sound and sound, and follow each other." When observing social development, we must pay attention to the organic connection between this decision and the decision, action, and reaction. The productivity standards must be comprehensively and accurately understood, and must not be absolute, and productivity standards and superstructures cannot be put aside to understand productivity standards. Since the reform and opening up, our party has proposed a series of "two-handed grasp", including one hand for material civilization construction, one hand for spiritual civilization construction, one hand for economic construction, one hand for legal construction, one hand for development, one hand for stability, and one hand for reform and opening up. The one-handed approach to punishing corruption is in line with the requirements of historical materialism.
When considering the topics of the Third Plenary Session, we proposed to formulate a comprehensive and deepening reform plan, instead of just talking about economic system reform, or only economic and social system reform. This consideration is because to solve the prominent contradictions and problems we face, it is difficult to rely on reforms in a single field and at a single level. It is necessary to strengthen the top-level design and overall planning, and to strengthen the relevance, systemicity, and synergy of the reforms. Only by resolving the problem of inadequacy in the production relationship and the problem of inadequacy in the superstructure can the comprehensive effect be produced.
At the same time, we also highlighted the need to focus on economic construction and give play to the traction of economic system reform. That is to say, we must grasp the main aspects of the basic contradictions in our society at this stage, with emphasis on development. Only by focusing on the first priority of development to deploy reforms in various aspects, and to provide a strong traction for reform by liberating and developing social productive forces, can we better promote the adaptation of production relations to productive forces, superstructures and economic foundations. The practice since China's reform and opening up has fully proved that tightly twisting the liberation and development of social productive forces can provide a strong impetus for reforms in other aspects and affect the corresponding advancement of reforms in other aspects.
下午 On the afternoon of April 26, 2018, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, State President, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, hosted a seminar on furthering the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt in Wuhan and delivered an important speech. Before this symposium, Xi Jinping had a cordial exchange with technicians, model workers and staff representatives at the left bank of the Three Gorges Dam on the afternoon of the 24th. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xie Huanchi / photo
Here, I want to talk about a problem. Marx and Engels used the basic contradictions of society to promote the law of social development and made scientific predictions about future social development. The Communist Manifesto states that "the destruction of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable." This is the "two inevitables". It is the inevitable direction of historical laws in terms of the general trend of human history. Here we also need to talk about the "two never" proposed by Marx. Marx said: "No matter what social form it is, it will never perish until all the productive forces it can hold are exerted; and the new higher The production relationship will never occur until its material existence conditions have matured in the fetus of the old society. "This important point of Marx can help us understand why capitalism has not completely died out, and why socialism There will also be twists and turns like the collapse of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern Europe. Why did communism as foreseen by Marxism take a long historical development to achieve. After learning this scientific worldview and methodology of understanding social and historical development, we will be able to strengthen the ideal backbone, build a ballast stone of conviction, and maintain a strong strategic determination. We must strengthen the self-confidence, theoretical confidence, and self-confidence of the road to socialism with Chinese characteristics, and continuously improve the level of development of our country ’s social productive forces and people ’s living standards. broad.
Third, learn and grasp the view that the people are the creators of history, and rely on the people to advance reforms. How to understand the role of the people in history is a major issue in the concept of social history. Opposite to the historical idealist heroic conception of history, the historical materialist concept of mass history completely solved this major problem for the first time and proposed that the people are the creators of history. Following the viewpoint of historical materialism, our party has put forward the mass line and made it the party's lifeline and fundamental work line.
党 In all historical periods of revolution, construction, and reform, our party insists on relying on the people closely. The 35-year course of reform and opening up shows that many reforms have been spontaneously promoted by the grassroots masses and formed from the bottom up. The broad masses of the people are an important force in promoting reforms. Today, when we comprehensively deepen reform, we must still give full play to the role of the people. Reform is for the people, so that reform is meaningful; relying on the people for reform, reform is motivated.
In summarizing the historical experience of reform and opening up, the Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Party emphasized that it is necessary to adhere to people-oriented, respect the status of the people as the main body, give full play to the spirit of the people's initiative, rely on the people to promote reform, and promote the all-round development of the people; It is clearly stated in the thought that the starting point and end point should be to promote social fairness and justice and improve people's well-being. In the process of comprehensively deepening reform, we must adhere to the Marxist mass perspective, adhere to the party's mass line, and "take the people's heart as the heart", and take the realization, maintenance, and development of the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people as the starting point and end point of promoting reform. To make development results more and more equitable for all people. Only in this way can reform make a difference.
When Emperor Taizong Li Shimin and his ministers summed up the lessons of Emperor Sui's death during the Zhenguan reign, governing the country "must save the people first, if the people are damaged to serve their lives, they will cut their stocks to eat their belly, and their stomachs will be full." The feudal rulers of ancient times still realized the importance of keeping the people. Our party's leaders at all levels should consciously adhere to the fundamental purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, maintain flesh-and-blood ties with the people, and always breathe and share the fate with the people Unite and lead the people to lead a new chapter in reform to ensure the success of the reform.
全面 In comprehensively deepening reforms, we must properly handle the relationship of respecting objective laws and exerting subjective initiative. On the one hand, we must adhere to everything that is based on reality and act in accordance with objective laws. We must grasp a blueprint to the end, and do a good job of laying the foundation for long-term work. We must not pat our heads, blindly direct, make random decisions, eradicate short-term behaviors, and promote seedlings. On the other hand, local, grassroots and masses should be encouraged to explore boldly, try first, sum up experience in a timely manner, be bold in advancing theoretical and practical innovation, and continuously deepen their understanding of the laws of reform. We propose the combination of strengthening the top-level design and crossing the river while feeling the stones, promoting the overall advancement and promoting breakthroughs in key areas. This is an important principle that must be followed to comprehensively deepen the reform, and it is also a requirement of historical materialism.
Finally, I want to emphasize that our party is governing in a big country like China with a population of 1.3 billion. Faced with a very complicated domestic and foreign environment, it shoulders a heavy ruling mission. Without the strong support of theoretical thinking, it is difficult to overcome. It is also difficult to keep moving forward with all kinds of risks and difficulties. Engels said: "If a nation wants to stand at the highest point of science, it must not be without theoretical thinking for a moment." The entire party must strengthen the study and application of Marxist philosophy, improve the use of Marxist positions, views, methods, analysis and analysis. problem solving skill. Learning is not about dogma and quotes, but to solve practical problems. Leading cadres at all levels, especially senior cadres, should originally study and study classic works, strive to use Marxist philosophy as their housekeeping skills, strengthen ideals and convictions, adhere to the correct political direction, improve strategic thinking ability, comprehensive decision-making ability, and control Overall ability and unity lead the people to continuously write a new chapter in the history of reform and opening up.
(This is the main part of General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech during the eleventh group study of the Eighteenth Central Political Bureau on December 3, 2013.)
Additional elements of Xi Jinping's contributions ot New Era Thought
Toward New Era Thought: Reflections on Xi Jinping, Speech at the celebration of the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up
The Meaning is in the Title--Reflections on Xi Jinping Speech, "Work Together to Create a High-Quality World Economy
CPE Working Group on Empire: Part 2--Observations on Xi Jinping, Speech Delivered at the G20 Leaders' Summit on the World Economic Situation and Trade Issues--"Work Together to Create a High Quality World Economy" [习近平在二十国集团领导人峰会上关于世界经济形势和贸易问题的讲话（全文）携手共进，合力打造高质量世界经济]
Building New Era Thought--An Annotation of the English Translation of Xi Jinping's Address on the 40th Anniversary of Reform and Opening Up, Beijing 18 December 2018
Flora Sapio: Four Short Reflections on Jiang Shigong’s Essay on “Philosophy and History” Interpreting the “Xi Jinping Era” through Xi’s Report to the Nineteenth National Congress of the CCP’ [ 哲学与历史 —从党的十九大报告解读“习近平时代” 强世功 ]
Chinese Communist Party Plenum on Socialist Rule of Law: Xi Jinping on Five Key Points of Chinese Rule of Law
"Always Uphold and Fully Utilize the Unique Advantages of the Party" (始终坚持和充分发挥党的独特优势) : Xi Jinping (习近平) and the Institutionalization of Intra-Party Democracy With Chinese Characteristics in the Chinese Communist Party