When asked if he thought China’s relationship with the US should be adjusted as globalisation has come under pressure, Xi said: “More than 10,000 people fly between China and the US on a daily basis, which is about 4 million [people] a year.” “I can hardly imagine a complete decoupling between China and the US. This is not the case that I would like to see, and I don’t think our American friends want to see it, and my friend [Donald] Trump wouldn’t want to see it either.” It was the first time Xi had openly referred to the US president as a “friend”, while Trump has used the word repeatedly about the Chinese leader as evidence of his success in dealing with Beijing, despite the ongoing trade war. . . . “I want to be a constructor, not a destroyer, and we should respect the things that already exist and do our best to improve them, instead of tearing them down,” he said. “I don’t want to be a wall builder or a ditch digger, and all I have been doing is to expand my circle of friends.” (China, US too intertwined to ‘break up’ despite trade war, Xi Jinping says in Russia).
Taken together one can begin to see the contours of new era global orders in imperial form. This new era imperial project is precisely what distinguishes globalization post 2016 from that which global leaders worked so hard to build on the principles of the post 1945 world order. It is imperial in the sense of its organization--not de-centered as was the anti-imperial post 1945 model (at least in theory which was embedded in the organizing principles of the United Nations system)--but rather centered on an organizing apex point from out of which roads, spikes, and other arrangements are routed. This new era imperialism is possible only because of the long detoxification of imperial organization made possible by the post 1945 order, which stripped the organizational premises of empire of its European territorial and racist overlay acquired from the 15th century and the colonization of the Western Hemisphere.
U.S. Trade Representative and the U.S. Department of Treasury respond to the “White Paper” issued by China on June 2, 2019
The United States is disappointed that the Chinese have chosen in the “White Paper” issued yesterday and recent public statements to pursue a blame game misrepresenting the nature and history of trade negotiations between the two countries. To understand where the parties are and where they can go, it is necessary to understand the history that has led to the current impasse.
The opening paragraph is both direct and ironic. The irony arises because the American justification for its position was itself the product of an elaborate construction of blame that then served to structure talks from 2018 on. But for the Americans there is a huge difference between constructing a case of breaches of agreements, rules and norms, on the one hand, and post facto justifications for negotiating positions which is effectively how the U.S. reduces the State Council White Paper. The clash of a quasi-investigatory style of the Americans versus a historical narrative style of the Chinese already becomes central to the construction of arguments.
President Trump is committed to taking action to address the unfair trade practices that China has engaged in for decades, which have contributed to persistent and unsustainable trade deficits, almost $420 billion last year, and have caused severe harm to American workers, farmers, ranchers, and businesses. In August 2017, at the President’s instruction, the United States Trade Representative conducted an investigation of China’s practices relating to intellectual property rights, innovation, and technology development. After receiving and considering extensive hearing testimony and other evidence over an investigation that lasted seven months, the United States issued a 200-page report in March 2018 documenting how China had engaged in unfair trade practices, including forced technology transfer, failed to protect American intellectual property rights, and conducted and supported cyber theft from American companies, robbing them of sensitive commercial information and trade secrets. These unfair trade practices and other actions by China have cost the United States and its businesses hundreds of billions of dollars every year.
The Americans here strongly embrace a rhetorical and ideological style that has marked American thinking and that frames fundamental approaches to the taking of important political decisions ever since the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 (considered e.g., Happy Birthday: A Reverie on the Road from the American to the Kosovo Declaration of Independence). U.S. officials have long adhered to this quasi-juridical style, one that is contingent on the ability to "build a case" to which a specific remedial position can be taken, in the political and economic spheres. That case building in turn assumes the ideological (principles or rule of law) foundations which can be applied to the "facts" developed to reach a "conclusion" from which a remedial objective can be framed. Americans remain substantially blind to the strength of this discursive ideological style, as powerful as the style has proven especially after 1945. That is the case here. The Trade Representative responds to the State Council White Paper with a loud sigh--and refers his Chinese "friends" to the March 2018 Report, a response to which would have been the only matter that would have counted with the Americans. Thus, while the Chinese argue the imperatives of history, the Americans view this in the form of a quasi-common law proceeding in which the law (negotiations over which are central to the Chinese side) are taken as given and not subject to challenge.
Based on these findings, the President directed his Administration to take effective action to address China’s harmful and distortive actions under both U.S. law and any applicable international agreements. The President directed USTR to challenge China’s unfair trade practices at the World Trade Organization but also to impose tariffs on China to offset the damage to U.S. industry caused by China’s conduct. In response, rather than working constructively to address our concerns, China doubled down and retaliated by imposing unjustified tariffs on American exports, and the United States responded with additional tariffs.
The application of the American ideological approach follows naturally from the Report. And the Trade Representative tells us, the Chinese side has failed to produce facts that contradict or weaken the American effort to make a case for unfairness in Chinese practices. As a consequence, remedial measures could legitimately be taken--in this case the tariffs. Taken within the quasi judicial model, the move from fact finding, to application of law to facts, to final determination and then to remedy seems logical and seamless.
After Presidents Trump and Xi agreed to launch the current negotiations in Buenos Aires in December 2018, President Trump postponed for 90 days the increase in tariffs on Chinese imports that was scheduled to go into effect on January 1, 2019. The President extended the deadline again in March because the parties appeared to be making progress in their talks. Following months of hard work and candid and constructive discussions, the parties had reached agreement on a number of important matters. In wrapping up the final important issues, however, the Chinese moved away from previously agreed-upon provisions. In response to this Chinese backtracking, the United States moved forward with the previously-announced rate increase on Chinese imports and announced tariffs on additional Chinese imports.
Here the Trade Representative makes the case for unilateral measures. The basis is a sort of breach of promise claim. Again the rhetoric of law and of the judicial model drive the analysis. There is a twist here--one moves from the fact finding of the March 2018 Report, to the discursive tropes of bad faith contract negotiation.
It is important to note that the impetus for the discussions was China’s long history of unfair trade practices. Our negotiating positions have been consistent throughout these talks, and China back-pedaled on important elements of what the parties had agreed to. One such position was the need for enforceability, a position necessitated by China’s history of making commitments that it fails to keep. But our insistence on detailed and enforceable commitments from the Chinese in no way constitutes a threat to Chinese sovereignty. Rather, the issues discussed are common to trade agreements and are necessary to address the systemic issues that have contributed to persistent and unsustainable trade deficits.
And, as is usual in American legal discourse, the Trade Representative ends with an appeal to equity. The American position is taken as of right--the Chinese side cannot appeal to fairness because they have acted in bad faith, and have unclean hands. Given that the Chancellor of equity courts of public opinion ought to side with the Americans. But here one ought to ask--to whom is the response directed. It makes a strong case for domestic (U.S.) consumption--as did the State Council White Paper--but it is not clear that its discursive (and persuasive) power can migrate across political cultures and ideological divides.
Development of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation
Joint Statement of the New Era Comprehensive Strategic Collaboration Partnership
June 06, 2019 09:58 Source: People's Daily Online - People's Daily
At the invitation of President Putin of the Russian Federation, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to Russia from June 5 to 7, 2019 and attended the 23rd St. Petersburg International Economic Forum. The two heads of state held talks in Moscow. President Xi Jinping met with the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, De A. Medvedev.
The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as "the two parties") declare the following:
The 2019 anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries was celebrated by both China and Russia. Over the past 70 years, relations between the two countries have gone through an extraordinary process. The two sides draw on historical experience, base themselves on the interests of the two countries and the two peoples, commit themselves to achieving peaceful development, win-win cooperation, push China-Russia relations to the best level in history, and establish a model of good-neighborliness, cooperation and mutual benefit. Sino-Russian relations are firm and stable, and are not affected by external environmental disturbances. They have enormous endogenous power and broad development prospects.
The two sides believe that the main features of current Sino-Russian relations are:
- a high degree of political mutual trust;
- complete high-level exchanges and cooperation mechanisms in various fields;
- rich and strategic practical cooperation;
- a solid generation of friendly and public opinion;
- Close and effective international coordination.
The two sides have established the following basic principles guiding the relationship between the two countries:
- mutual respect, equal trust;
- Help each other, good neighborliness and friendship;
- mutual support, strategic collaboration;
—— Mutual understanding and mutual benefit, cooperation and win-win;
- Non-aligned, non-confrontation, not targeting third parties.
The two sides will continue to adhere to the above principles and continue to uphold the spirit of the 2001 Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendship between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation and the spirit of other bilateral relations documents to guide the long-term development of bilateral relations.
Sino-Russian relations have entered a new era and ushered in new opportunities for greater development. Focusing on changes in the world situation, conforming to the common aspirations of the two peoples and achieving greater development of bilateral relations under the new situation, the two sides announced that they will work to develop a comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership between China and Russia in the new era. Its connotation includes the following goals and directions:
-- Watching each other, giving each other more firm and strong strategic support, supporting each other to follow their own development path and safeguard their core interests, and safeguarding their respective security, sovereignty and territorial integrity. To this end, the two sides will further develop mutual trust and cooperation in related fields.
——In-depth integration, close coordination and strategic cooperation on national development strategy docking, expand mutually beneficial cooperation in economy, trade and investment, the people's hearts are more friendly, and the culture is more harmonious;
-- Pioneering and innovating, continuously enriching and perfecting the cooperation concepts and mechanisms of the two sides, opening up new fields, projects and technologies, and further tapping the potential and development momentum of bilateral relations;
-- Praise and win-win, further unite other countries with unanimous views, safeguard the international order and international system centered on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and promote the building of new international relations of mutual respect, fairness, justice, cooperation and win-win, and promote the construction. The community of human destiny, based on the equal participation of all countries in global governance, following international law, guaranteeing equality and indivisible security, mutual respect and consideration of mutual interests, abandoning confrontation and conflict, upholding the principles of multilateralism and solving international and regional issues at the international level In the affairs of the government, we will promote the formation of a more just and reasonable multi-polar world, benefit the people of the world, and achieve win-win cooperation.
The Russian side supports the "One Belt, One Road" initiative, and China supports the promotion of the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The two sides have strengthened coordination actions in promoting the construction of the “Belt and Road” and the European-European Economic Union.
China supports the establishment of the Greater Europe and Asia Partnership Initiative. The two sides believe that the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the Greater Europe and Asia partnership can go hand in hand, coordinate development, and jointly promote the process of regional organizations and dual multilateral integration for the benefit of the Eurasian people.
The two sides agreed to regard political cooperation, security cooperation, pragmatic cooperation, humanities exchanges and international cooperation as the key areas of China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership. In order to achieve the above objectives, the two sides will jointly plan the principles, directions and specific measures for cooperation in various fields to further enrich the content of China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership.
Sino-Russian relations will continue to be based on solid political trust and play a leading role in the strategy of the two heads of state. The two sides will focus on the following aspects:
(1) Maintaining close contacts between the two heads of state through annual exchange of visits, holding bilateral meetings on important multilateral occasions, hotline of heads of state, and mutual exchange of letters, and conducting top-level design and strategic guidance for the development of bilateral relations.
(2) Give full play to the coordination and promotion of the regular meeting mechanism between the Chinese and Russian prime ministers, and maintain the efficient operation of the Intergovernmental Cooperation Committee in the fields of economy, trade, investment, energy, humanities and localities.
(3) Maintain the momentum of high-level exchanges between the legislative bodies of the two countries, and make good use of the inter-parliament exchange mechanism and the dialogue platform of friendly groups to carry out multi-level, wide-area and all-round exchanges.
(4) Supporting the unique channels of the CPC Central Office and the Office of the President of the Russian Federation as bilateral exchanges, and playing a greater role in safeguarding the exchanges between the two heads of state and promoting the implementation of the consensus of the two heads of state. Strengthen the comprehensive cooperation between the two offices and relevant departments.
(5) Supporting the Communist Party of China to maintain institutionalized friendly exchanges with major Russian political parties, and strive to establish a new type of political party relationship that seeks common ground while reserving differences, mutual respect, mutual learning and mutual learning.
The goal of Sino-Russian security cooperation is to ensure the national security of the two countries, create favorable conditions for the stable development of their respective countries, and effectively respond to various traditional and new security threats and challenges.
Both parties will take the following measures:
(1) Give full play to the role of the strategic security consultation mechanism, consolidate trust in the national security field, and never allow any force to use its territory to engage in activities against each other; maintain close communication and coordination between the two sides on major national security issues; continue to develop the road Dialogue with the concept, the experience of governing the country, and the building of the ability to govern.
(2) Continue to strengthen the strategic communication between the two defense departments and the military, deepen military mutual trust, strengthen cooperation in the field of military technology, carry out joint military exercises, improve pragmatic cooperation mechanisms at all levels and promote the relationship between the two militaries to a new level.
(3) Improve Sino-Russian law enforcement security cooperation mechanism, coordinate and comprehensively promote cooperation in various fields of law enforcement and security in the two countries.
(4) Supporting each other's efforts in combating terrorism and extremism, strengthening cooperation in combating the spread and promotion of terrorism, extremist ideas and personnel recruitment, cutting off terrorist organizations' materials, funds, etc., and eliminating incitement to terrorist acts, Detecting various terrorist activities that threaten the national security of both countries. Strengthen policy coordination and constructive cooperation in the multilateral counter-terrorism field, promote the international community to establish a global anti-terrorism united front centered on the UN, oppose "double standards" in combating terrorism and extremism, condemn the use of terror and extremist organizations, and crack down on International terrorism and extremism achieve geopolitical objectives and interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.
(5) Strengthen coordination of positions in the field of drug control, exchange of experience and pragmatic cooperation, consolidate bilateral anti-drug cooperation mechanisms, and deepen exchanges and cooperation in the areas of drug demand reduction and supply reduction, and joint law enforcement. We will firmly safeguard the existing international anti-drug system based on the UN's three major anti-drug conventions, promote the pragmatic cooperation and sustainable development of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization's anti-drug cooperation, and promote anti-drug cooperation among BRICS countries.
(6) Expanding exchanges in the field of cyber security. Further measures are taken to maintain the security and stability of the critical information infrastructure of both parties. Strengthen exchanges in the field of cyberspace legislation and jointly promote the principles of Internet governance in accordance with international law and domestic regulations. Opposing national security as an excuse to unnecessarily restrict market access for ICT products and unnecessarily restrict the export of high-tech products. Maintain cyberspace peace and security on the basis of equal participation of all countries, and promote the construction of a global information network space governance order. Work continues to further develop the Code of Conduct for Responsible Cyberspace States within the UN framework and promote the development of legally binding legal documents to combat the use of ICTs for criminal purposes.
(7) Carry out border cooperation and cooperation between border defense departments, and further strengthen the pragmatic cooperation between the border authorities of the two countries on the basis of uninterrupted situation monitoring, information exchange and the practice of pragmatic joint operations in the border areas, and jointly fight against transnational crimes and illegalities. Immigration to ensure the stability of the national border. At the same time, they respect the principles of international law inviolable by the territories and borders and respect each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.Practical cooperation
The goal of Sino-Russian pragmatic cooperation is to lay a solid material foundation for bilateral relations. The two sides will broaden their thinking and innovative models, promote the comprehensive improvement of pragmatic cooperation between the two countries, and achieve deep integration of interests and mutual benefit.
The two sides agreed to implement the following tasks:
(1) Implementing the Memorandum on Promoting the High-quality Development of Bilateral Trade between the two sides, continuously improving the scale of bilateral trade and optimizing the trade structure. Deepen cooperation in e-commerce and service trade, expand investment and economic and technological cooperation, promote the implementation of strategic large-scale projects, improve the level of trade and investment facilitation, and create favorable conditions for bilateral economic and trade cooperation. The two sides support small and medium-sized enterprises to expand cooperation and inject new impetus into bilateral economic and trade cooperation.
(2) Continue to deepen all-round integrated energy cooperation in the upper, middle and lower reaches, and promote exchanges and cooperation between the two sides in energy-saving technologies, standards, talents and information. Support the launching ceremony of gas production and gas supply for the Sino-Russian East Line natural gas pipeline project during the year. Support the Sino-Russian Energy Business Forum to become a mechanismal activity.
Implement the package of cooperation projects in the nuclear field reached on June 8, 2018. Based on the principle of mutual benefit and win-win, on the basis of the "Joint Statement of the Chinese and Russian Government Heads on Deepening Strategic Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy" signed on November 7, 2016, we will continue to deepen and expand cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy and explore feasible Cooperation projects.
(3) Continue to deepen the investment cooperation between the two countries, give full play to the overall coordination role of the China-Russia Investment Cooperation Committee, further improve the mechanism, and strengthen the development strategy, planning and policy docking between the two countries' economic sectors. In accordance with the principles of “corporate body, market orientation, business operation, and international practices”, we will jointly promote more investment cooperation projects. Strengthen the guidance of bilateral cooperation funds such as Sino-Russian investment funds and Sino-Russian cooperation and development investment funds to enhance financial support and service levels. Strengthen the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of investors in both sides and create a fairer, more friendly and stable business environment.
(4) Carrying out cooperation between the government departments of the two countries and the financial supervision department within the framework of the Subcommittee on Financial Cooperation of the China-Russia Prime Minister's Regular Meeting Committee. The Chinese and Russian financial regulatory authorities will take measures to increase the use of local currency settlement in foreign trade contracts, carry out cooperation in the payment system, bank card and insurance, and promote mutual investment. The issuers of both countries are welcome to issue bonds in the financial markets of both countries. Support the efforts of commercial banks of the two countries in the establishment of institutions, expand the network of correspondent banks and innovation of financial products, and encourage financial institutions of both sides to actively participate in the trading of bond markets in the two countries.
(V) Deepen the accounting and auditing standards and audit supervision cooperation, actively promote mutual recognition of accounting and auditing standards, and provide institutional guarantee for cross-border issuance of Chinese and Russian enterprises and the interconnection of financial markets between the two countries.
(VI) Expanding the depth and breadth of cooperation in science and technology innovation, and deciding to organize the “Sino-Russian Science and Technology Innovation Year” in 2020 and 2021. Continue to hold regular Sino-Russian innovation dialogues, promote the construction of Sino-Russian joint science and technology innovation fund, promote Sino-Russian scientific cooperation, promote China's participation in the implementation of ion-collector device projects based on superconducting heavy ion accelerators, and strengthen the exchange of scientific and technological innovation talents between the two countries. Cooperation.
(7) Expanding and deepening the long-term mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries in the aerospace field on the basis of the implementation of the China-Russia 2018-2022 space cooperation program, including launch vehicles and engines, lunar and deep space exploration, Earth observation, aerospace electronic components, Cooperation in key areas such as space debris monitoring and low-orbit satellite communications systems.
(8) Strengthen cooperation in the fields of information and communication technology, digital economy, and radio frequency resource management, and carry out in-depth exchange and cooperation between the Beidou navigation system and the Russian GLONASS system in terms of orbital and frequency.
Actively implement cooperation projects in the fields of civil aviation, raw materials, equipment, radio electronics, etc., and promote the practical cooperation between Chinese and Russian industrial enterprises to a new level.
(9) Expand and enhance the level of agricultural cooperation and deepen agricultural investment cooperation. Take measures to optimize the business environment, support the enterprises of the two countries to carry out the whole industrial chain cooperation of soybean production and processing, logistics and trade, and implement the "Agricultural Development Plan for Northeast China and Russia's Far East and Baikal Region" and "Expanding Soybean for Russia" Cooperation plan for the export of soybean products to China. Actively carry out mutual market access cooperation between agricultural products and food products of the two countries, and expand the trade of high-quality agricultural products and foods between the two sides.
(10) Deepen cooperation in the field of transportation. Adhere to the principle of mutual benefit and win-win, build and renovate existing cross-border transportation infrastructure, and promote the implementation of landmark major cooperation projects in railways, border rivers and bridges. Strengthen cross-border transportation cooperation between the two countries, promote the facilitation of transport customs clearance, and improve the quality and efficiency of transportation services.
(11) Strengthen all-round pragmatic cooperation between customs inspection and quarantine and port operations, continuously improve the level of synchronized infrastructure construction of port infrastructure, optimize the customs clearance environment for ports, and carry out necessary information exchange for customs.
(12) Promote the sustainable development cooperation between China and Russia in the Arctic, and expand cooperation in the development and utilization of Arctic waterways and infrastructure, resource development, tourism, and environmental protection in the Arctic region on the basis of adhering to the rights and interests of coastal countries. Support the continuation of polar scientific research cooperation and promote the implementation of the Arctic Joint Scientific Research Voyage and Arctic Joint Research Project. Continue to carry out Sino-Russian collaboration in the Arctic-Dialogue Region International Arctic Forum.
(13) Enhance the level and quality of cooperation in the field of natural disaster prevention and emergency relief, including natural disasters and production safety accidents, and promote international cooperation in this field. Strengthen cooperation in the areas of transboundary water protection, environmental disaster emergency liaison, biodiversity conservation, climate change response, and solid waste treatment.
(14) In the spirit of good-neighborly friendship and cooperation, continue to develop pragmatic cooperation in the Sino-Russian border area, strengthen coordination, and promote economic and social development in the border areas of the two countries.
(15) Expanding local exchanges between China and Russia, continuing to deepen regional economic and trade cooperation, and implementing the "Sino-Russian Cooperation and Development Plan for the Far East Region of Russia (2018-2024)" to enrich the achievements of the Sino-Russian local cooperation and exchange year. Research establishes and operates a new local cooperation platform. We will promote the expansion of cooperation with the China International Import Expo, the China-Russia Expo, the China-Northeast Asia Expo, the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, and the Oriental Economic Forum.
(16) Actively promote the construction of the “Belt and Road” and the European-European Economic Union. Promote an effective dialogue mechanism between the government of the People's Republic of China and the Economic Commission for Europe and Asia. Practically promote priority projects that are in line with the interests of China, the Eurasian Economic Union and its member states.
Ensuring that the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and the Eurasian Economic Union signed on May 17, 2018 will enter into force at an early date and be implemented. The two sides advocated the initiation of negotiations on the Sino-Russian Economic Partnership Agreement.
The two sides spoke highly of the second "Belt and Road" international cooperation summit forum held in Beijing from April 25 to 27, 2019. During the forum, the parties reached an important consensus on further strengthening the constructive cooperation in the Eurasian region on the basis of docking existing national and regional integration strategies and projects.
(17) Continue to deepen bilateral consular cooperation, strengthen exchanges in this field, and actively promote the further facilitation of Sino-Russian personnel exchanges.Cultural exchanges
The goal of Sino-Russian cultural exchanges is to inherit friendships from generation to generation, consolidate friendly exchanges between the people, and promote mutual learning and mutual learning. In order to further develop humanities exchanges, the two sides will take the following measures:
(1) To play the coordinating role of the China-Russia Humanities Cooperation Committee and implement the "China-Russia Humanities Cooperation Action Plan."
(2) Accelerate breakthroughs in the following areas of humanities exchange and cooperation: academic exchanges between teachers and students; use of distance education technology to conduct teaching in Chinese and Russian; and jointly organize activities in the fields of basic education, secondary and supplementary education, and youth exchanges. According to the principle of quantity equivalence, they are provided to each other’s universities to study abroad. Exchange outstanding students to the other countries to study the dominant profession, achieve the goal of mutual exchange of 100,000 students in 2020; improve the operation mode of Chinese learning centers such as the Russian Center in China and the Confucius Institute in Russia.
Create a youth exchange brand. In the framework of the 100-China Youth Exchange Program, the two sides will continue to carry out exchanges and practices, promote the international youth movement, increase the number of exchanges and projects between Chinese and Russian youth organizations, and implement the "China-Russia Youth Generation Friendship Declaration."
(3) Accelerate the construction of Moscow University in Beijing, and support the joint research institutions of universities and university alliances in the two countries to carry out joint research on scientific research, quality resources sharing and high-level talents. Continue to support and promote the "Sino-Russian Youth Business Incubator" exchange program, promote the implementation of the youth entrepreneurship plan of the two countries, and train young and innovative entrepreneurs.
(4) Active cooperation in the field of health, including continuing to strengthen cooperation in the areas of responding to emergencies in the natural, man-made, epidemic prevention and health fields and eliminating medical consequences. Achieve the basic goals of human health, expand coverage of health services, and collaborate in the field of noncommunicable diseases and social health. Under the framework of the China-Russia Medical University Alliance and the Professional Medical Association, strengthen scientific research cooperation and encourage direct exchanges and cooperation between the two countries' counterpart medical organizations.
Continue to expand cooperation in the field of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. Improve the level of academic collaboration between relevant Chinese and Russian organizations in the research and monitoring of dangerous viral diseases and natural epidemic infectious diseases, and risk assessment of human health environmental factors.
(5) Supporting and promoting the establishment of direct links and deepening cooperation between cultural institutions of the two countries, such as professional art academies, theaters, libraries, museums, etc., further supporting the activities of the Moscow China Cultural Center and the Beijing Russian Cultural Center, strengthening local cultural exchanges and cooperation, and promoting two In-depth training on the training and exchange of talents in the field of culture and art in the country.
(6) Deepen sports exchanges and cooperation, and organize sports exchange activities such as the China-Russia Summer Youth Games and Winter Youth Games, the Silk Road International Rally, and the Silk Road Cup Hockey League. Strengthen cooperation in preparing for the Winter Olympics and jointly improve the level of winter sports. The Russian side supports the Chinese side to host the 24th Winter Olympics in 2022. The Chinese side will provide good conditions for the Russian athletes to stay in China on the eve of the Winter Olympics and during the period.
(7) Promote cooperation between media organizations of the two countries and objectively and comprehensively report on major international events. Support the media of the two countries to carry out professional dialogues and exchanges and hold related thematic activities. We will strengthen all-round and multi-form cooperation between the new media (web media) of both sides, promote the understanding of the outstanding achievements of the Chinese and Russian cultures, and create a good social atmosphere for the development of Sino-Russian cooperation and partnership.
(8) Promoting the cooperation between the national tourism departments of the two countries, taking measures to simplify travel procedures, promoting measures to expand two-way tourism exchange, improving the quality and safety of tourism services, and encouraging the development of new forms of tourism, including Arctic tourism, automobile tourism, theme tourism, etc. . Focus on promoting cooperation between the competent authorities of the two countries, coordinate management of the tourism market, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of tourists.
(9) Promote cooperation between the forestry and nature protection departments of the two countries, and continue to deepen the cooperation and cooperation between rare and endangered wildlife and migratory migratory birds such as the Northeast Tiger and the Northeast Leopard. Strengthen cooperation in nature reserves, especially the cooperation of the Northeast Tiger and Leopard Cross-border Nature Reserve, jointly carry out patrol and monitoring of the Northeast Tiger Leopard, jointly carry out ecological corridor construction, and ensure the free migration of the Northeast Tiger and Leopard on the Sino-Russian border. In order to enhance the friendship between the two peoples, the Chinese side will provide a pair of giant pandas to Russia. The two sides will conduct cooperation and joint research on the protection and breeding of giant pandas.
(10) Strengthen communication, expand cooperation, and deepen the work of repairing and protecting the martyrs' memorial facilities in each other's territory.
(11) To continue to play the role of the China-Russia Friendship, Peace and Development Committee as the main channel for non-governmental exchanges between the two countries. We will actively promote more non-governmental exchange activities and consolidate the social and social activities of the two countries, focusing on the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Russia. The basis of public opinion.
The purpose of Sino-Russian international collaboration is to reflect the mission and responsibility of the two countries as world powers and permanent members of the Security Council. They are committed to safeguarding world peace and stability and international fairness, promoting respect for international law, promoting the democratization of international relations, and promoting a more just and rational international order. Direction development. The two sides will cooperate in the following areas:
(1) In the spirit of multilateralism, we must firmly uphold the international system based on the United Nations and the international order based on international law. Adhere to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, including sovereign equality and non-interference in internal affairs, relying on extensive international cooperation, promoting global governance reform, supporting the multilateral trading system, and promoting a new, more equitable, balanced and stable international structure for the nations and people of the world. Further development provides opportunities. The contribution of the BRICS countries to the formation of a multi-polar world and the building of a more just, multilateral, democratic and equal international system has become increasingly prominent. It is necessary to effectively play the role of the BRICS, including representatives of BRICS members to the United Nations and other major multilateral platforms. Hold regular conversations.
(2) Committed to improving the efficiency of the operation of the United Nations and its Security Council, and supporting the necessary and reasonable reform of the United Nations and its Security Council in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations to fully implement the Charter of the United Nations. The reform of the Security Council should give priority to increasing the representation and voice of developing countries, so that the majority of small and medium-sized countries have more opportunities to take turns to enter the Security Council and participate in decision-making. All parties should continue to explore the issue of reform of the UN and its Security Council through extensive and democratic consultations. They should not set time limits, push for immature reform programs, and seek a "package" solution that balances interests and concerns.
(3) Committed to fully implementing the 2030 sustainable development agenda, balancing and promoting fair, inclusive, open, comprehensive, innovative and sustainable development in the three major areas of economy, society and environment. Supporting the important role of the United Nations in coordinating the global implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the need to strengthen the capacity of Member States to implement the 2030 Agenda through reforms such as the United Nations development system.
(4) Strengthen international cooperation to jointly address global environmental issues such as climate change and biodiversity. The two sides welcomed the fact that the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has reached the implementation rules of the Paris Agreement as scheduled, which will further strengthen climate action. China welcomes Russia's active participation in and support for the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, which China will host in 2020.
(5) Promoting the equal treatment of all kinds of human rights by the UN human rights mechanisms and increasing investment in the economic, social and cultural rights and development rights that developing countries attach importance to. Continue to work together to oppose the politicization of the international human rights agenda, oppose the adoption of a "double standard" policy, oppose the use of human rights as an excuse to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign states, oppose the attempt to downplay the nature of UN human rights institutions as intergovernmental institutions, oppose the distortion of tampering history, and subvert the current International relations and the system of international law.
(6) Firmly upholding the relevant principles of international humanitarian law and the basic principles of providing humanitarian relief in crisis situations as stipulated in General Assembly resolution 46/182.
(7) Take joint measures to prevent an arms race in outer space and prevent outer space from evolving into a military conflict territory. In this context, the two sides emphasized that the ban on the deployment of any weapons in outer space would help prevent international peace and security from being seriously threatened. Emphasize that we should first strictly abide by the existing international agreements on the peaceful use of outer space, safeguard world peace and security, develop international cooperation, and expand consensus.
Develop a legally binding multilateral instrument to ensure that no types of weapons are deployed in outer space. The two sides emphasized that the Conference on Disarmament is the only venue for multilateral disarmament negotiations and plays a key role in the negotiation of an international agreement on the comprehensive prevention of an arms race in outer space.
Promote the establishment of a multilateral mechanism at the United Nations to ensure the long-term stability of outer space activities and the security of outer space operations.
Take joint measures to promote an international initiative on the political commitment to “not deploy weapons first in outer space”. The two sides believe that the transparency and confidence measures in practice will help prevent the deployment of weapons in outer space, but they cannot replace the negotiation of international legal instruments in outer space.
Comply with and strengthen the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (the Convention), including by means of a protocol containing an effective verification mechanism, to eliminate incidents of violations of the Convention. At the same time, any decision on the Convention can only be discussed, formulated and adopted with the participation of all parties.
Promote the Conference on Disarmament as soon as possible to begin multilateral negotiations through the International Convention for the Suppression of Biochemical Terrorism.
Strengthen cooperation in the field of nuclear non-proliferation. Jointly safeguard the validity and authority of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as the basis of the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
(8) Strengthening international governance against corruption and supporting international cooperation in preventing and combating corruption in accordance with the United Nations Convention against Corruption.
(9) Oppose any form of protectionism, including unilateral trade sanctions, and maintain and consolidate an open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the core functions and rules of the World Trade Organization. Actively participate in the work within the framework of the WTO, explore and improve existing rules in the fields of agriculture, investment facilitation, domestic rules in services, small and medium-sized enterprises activities, e-commerce and trade remedy measures, and study and formulate new non-discriminatory multilateral trade rules in the WTO. In the negotiations, the issue of meeting the interests of all parties will form a joint force. In order to consolidate the role of the WTO, adapt it to the current economic situation and challenges, and promote the necessary reforms of the WTO to improve the efficiency of the three key functions of supervision, negotiation and dispute resolution. The core values and basic principles of the WTO should be safeguarded in the process of reform.
(10) Opposing political monopoly and currency blackmail in international economic and trade cooperation, condemning the necessity and scale of individual countries in trying to control other countries to carry out legitimate cooperation, as well as manipulating the global non-proliferation regime and exerting pressure on countries that do not care for them.
(11) Cooperate to maintain the reform momentum of the international monetary and financial system, promote the completion of the 15th round of the IMF's total inspection in accordance with the established timetable, and enhance the representation and voice of emerging markets and developing countries.
(12) Continue to work together with the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to further develop the role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an influential participant in the modern international relations system and to promote regional security, sustainable development, and efficient regional cooperation. The formation of a highly balanced world maintains equal, indivisible, comprehensive and sustainable security and stability.
Adhering to the mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for diverse civilizations, and seeking common development advocated by the "Shanghai Spirit", we will further deepen the cooperation of the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in the fields of politics, economy, security and humanities exchanges.
During Russia's presidency of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization from 2019 to 2020, it will focus on solving the above tasks.
(13) Promote the deepening of the BRICS strategic partnership from the three major aspects of economic and trade finance, political security, and humanities exchanges. We will continue to consolidate the important position of the BRICS countries in world political and economic affairs, and ensure the continuity and stability of cooperation among BRICS countries by implementing the consensus reached by successive BRICS leaders. Strengthen collaboration among multilateral development agencies such as the New Development Bank to support sustainable development and infrastructure development. Continue to implement the BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy and the Economic and Trade Cooperation Action Plan. Deepen innovation and technology cooperation through the construction of the BRICS New Industrial Revolution Partnership. Actively use the BRICS Dialogue and the “BRIC+” model to expand cooperation between the BRICS countries and other developing countries, emerging market countries and related organizations. We will jointly support Brazil’s eleventh meeting of leaders of the BRICS countries.
(14) To consolidate the multilateral basis for the operation of the national relations mechanism in the Asia-Pacific region, deepen cooperation in platforms such as the East Asia Summit, the ASEAN Regional Forum, and the ASEAN Defense Ministers' Expansion Conference, and strengthen the ASEM, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, AsiaInfo, and Big Picture. We advocated cooperation within the framework of other regional mechanisms to promote the development of the "China-Russia-India" mechanism.
Based on the strict observance of the norms of international law and the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes, non-use of force or threat of force, promote the construction of a common, integrated, cooperative, sustainable and equitable indivisible security and open and inclusive transparent Asia-Pacific Summit within the framework of the East Asia Summit. Regional security architecture.
(15) Supporting the G20 to play a leading role in global economic governance and international economic cooperation. Committed to implementing the achievements of the G20 summits, adhering to multilateralism, building an open world economy, safeguarding and promoting the WTO-based, rule-based multilateral trading system, and opposing unilateral including unilateral trade sanctions And protectionism, promoting structural cooperation, digital economy, new technology applications, e-commerce, sustainable development, climate change, infrastructure connectivity, reform of the international financial system, support for small and medium-sized enterprises, and consolidation of global value chains, and other international cooperation, Promote a strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth of the world economy. Promote the BRICS countries to further strengthen coordination and cooperation in the G20 affairs.
(16) Adhere to the general direction of building an open Asia-Pacific economy, promote positive and pragmatic achievements in the cooperation of APEC in various fields, and promote the free trade of countries in the Asia-Pacific region and the development of cooperation on major regional integration platforms based on WTO guidelines and principles. Full implementation of the interconnection blueprint, promote the development of the digital economy, build an Asia-Pacific free trade zone, and jointly plan a vision for cooperation after 2020.
(17) Adhere to the goal of denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and emphasize that dialogue and consultation are the only effective ways to solve the peninsula problem. The two sides welcomed the major positive changes in the situation on the Korean Peninsula since 2018 and positively evaluated the efforts made by all parties concerned. It is believed that the political solution to the peninsula problem should adhere to the goal of non-nuclearization for security and development, comprehensively balance the concerns of all parties, and promote the denuclearization of the peninsula and the establishment of a peninsula peace mechanism. Support the DPRK and the United States to maintain dialogue, move in the opposite direction, and promote continuous progress in dialogue. Support the DPRK and the ROK to improve relations and continue to promote reconciliation and cooperation. China and Russia will continue to make constructive efforts to promote a political solution to the peninsula problem and establish a peace and security mechanism in the region. They are willing to jointly promote the Council to play its due role.
(18) Stress that the Syrian issue can only be resolved through political and diplomatic means. According to Security Council Resolution 2254, it reiterates its support for Syria's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. We will start the work of the Constitutional Council as soon as possible, and seek a political solution that takes into account the legitimate concerns of all parties through the inclusive political process of “narrator-led, narrative-owned” promoted by the United Nations. China and Russia welcome the efforts of the sponsoring countries of Astana in improving the situation in Syria. They reiterated that they should crack down on all terrorist organizations in Syria, including terrorist organizations listed by the UN Security Council, and emphasize the urgency of Syria’s reconstruction. Assistance and willing to strengthen communication and coordination in this regard, emphasizing the importance of returning refugees as soon as possible and returning internally displaced persons to their homes.
(19) The comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue is of great significance and irreplaceable. According to UN Security Council Resolution 2231 and Article 25 of the UN Charter, it firmly supports the steady and comprehensive implementation of relevant agreements. The two sides spoke highly of Iran's strict implementation of all relevant requirements of the comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue and have been repeatedly confirmed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is expected that the participants in the comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear issue will also treat their obligations in a serious and responsible manner, in order to achieve the lofty goal of comprehensive agreement as scheduled. The two sides emphasized that it is necessary to maintain mutually beneficial economic and trade cooperation with Iraq and reiterate its firm opposition to the implementation of unilateral sanctions and "long arm jurisdiction" by any country on the grounds of its own laws.
(20) Continue to work closely in bilateral and multilateral frameworks to promote national reconciliation and stability in Afghanistan.
(21) Maintain consultations on Latin American affairs, attach importance to strengthening communication and cooperation in the process of developing relations with Latin American and Caribbean countries, and make further joint efforts to promote stability and prosperity in the region. Pay close attention to the development of the situation in Venezuela, call on all parties to abide by the UN Charter, the principles of international law and international relations, adhere to the principle of non-interference in internal affairs, promote the peaceful resolution of relevant issues through inclusive political dialogue, and oppose military intervention in Venezuela.
(22) Strengthen communication and coordination on African affairs, maintain a positive and healthy atmosphere for international cooperation in Africa, and jointly make greater contributions to peace and development in Africa. On the basis of full respect for the will of the African countries and gradual and orderly progress, continue to explore non-tripartite cooperation.
(23) Stressing that the question of Palestine is the root of many problems in the Middle East and supports the establishment of a completely independent, independent and promising Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital. Call on all parties concerned to refrain from taking actions that are detrimental to the prospects of the "two-state plan" and promote the early resumption of negotiations and the realization of the Middle East issue through political and diplomatic channels on the basis of existing international laws such as the relevant UN resolutions, the Madrid Principles, and the "Arab Peace Initiative". Comprehensive, fair and lasting solution.
President of the people's president
Xi Jinping (signed) F. Fu Putin (signed)
Moscow, June 5, 2009
(Xinhua News Agency, Moscow, June 5th)
People's Daily (06 June 2019, 02 edition)__________2019年06月06日09:58 来源：人民网－人民日报分享到：应俄罗斯联邦总统普京邀请，中华人民共和国主席习近平于2019年6月5日至7日对俄罗斯进行国事访问并出席第二十三届圣彼得堡国际经济论坛。两国元首在莫斯科举行会谈，习近平主席会见俄罗斯联邦政府总理德·阿·梅德韦杰夫。
《 人民日报 》（ 2019年06月06日 02 版）