But there is more than a Chinese Leninist theory of politics involved. The essence of this political project is the building a moral character (lì dé shù rén). Here, again, education is understood as more than the imparting of knowledge--that is its mechanics. It is instead understood as the inculcation of values, the achievement of which is undertaken through specific tasks relating to the masses. For the young, that focuses on schooling; for adults, perhaps, on the mechanics of social credit, and for the CPC, it focuses on the training and disciplining of cadres. The essence in each case is the same--to impart moral values--and moral values are understood to have a strong political dimension (or better put, expression). The morality of Marxism (the Chinese still use the euphemism of "socialism", perhaps to distinguish the current stage of development from the communist ideal to be attained sometime in the future). The political dimension of morals is premised on the principle that morals are expressed as politics, as well as in the premise that the expression of politics is inherently a moral exercise. That mutually reinforcing binary acquires a specific form as it emerges from the core principles that define the primary duty of the vanguard to build the ideal moral (communist) society. The New Era distillation of the Core Socialist Values in the 18th CPC Congress nicely expresses this intertwining--and the central role of the CPC as its authoritative mediator--as its magisterium of morals.
The essay follows below in the original Chinese and a crude English translation, along with brief additional reflections.
1. The venue for the exposition of moral-political values—that is for Leninist education—was carefully chosen. The choice was important to avoid a contradiction—that of the still potent CPC line of “Emancipating and Mind” and “Opening Up.” The later two, emphasized after the 1980s focused education on raising the value of labor to be consumed as part of the development of productive forces central to socialist modernization. Education as a technical consumable was important for that project. But Xi has a very different element of education in mind and thus the focus on ideological and political theory teachers. But here the character of education differs. One is not merely imparting knowledge that can be factored into production; one is shaping the masses under the guidance of the CPC. More than that, one is, by the structures of education itself, naturalizing a Leninist sensibility about order, hierarchy, and the relationship of the masses to those who are responsible for their guidance. “That is to say, the most important thing in youth education is to teach them the right thinking and guide them to take the right path. The ideological and political course is a key course to implement the fundamental task of "lide shunren" to cultivate people.”
2. Education reveals the structure of Leninism as much as it teaches its ideological and normative elements. Xi emphasizes, drawing on his own experiences, that
“The teaching of ideological and political courses involves Marxist philosophy, political economy, scientific socialism, economic, political, cultural, social, ecological civilization and party building, reform, development and stability, internal affairs, foreign affairs and national defense, governance of the party, country and military, and party History, national history, reform and opening-up history, and socialist development history involve world history, international communist movement history, world conditions, national conditions, party conditions, people’s conditions, etc.”
The complexity is daunting. But then so is its dynamic character. But that is the problem—Where error acquires a political dimension, teachers must be especially conservative. But to be conservative means that only a fraction of these knowledge bases will be adequately taught. More importantly, it opens the door to the expression of fear of error as the great lesson of ideological and political courses. But an ideology grounded in fear of error will make it more difficult for the CPC to undertake its critical work of naturalizing this theory within the fabric of Chinese society. That is the core difficulty that Xi alludes to in his discussion of the third issue, but it is a discussion that offers only a glimmer of the path forward for those who must be guided by the core leadership and who may not exercise with confidence the authoritative approach of the core leadership when imparting knowledge in a classroom.
3. It is in this sense that this approach to education expresses Leninism as both political morality and as its own performance. And in the process it also exposes the core tension in the provision of education by a vanguard that must use education both to teach abstractions and to demonstrate its working in the structure and operation of the education system itself. This is made particularly clear in the second paragraph of the remarks which starts with a legitimating invocation of ancient culture now re-imagined for the new era of Chinese historical development. “The ancients said: “Respect for education and persuasive learning is the foundation of building a nation; the development of talents and talents is the first priority of government.” Education is an important cornerstone of national rejuvenation and social progress.”
4. The elaboration of these core premises is the subject of the bulk of the essay. This is broken down into four issues, each considered in multiple subparts.
The first issue: Ideological and political theory courses are of great significance.
The second issue: The key to running ideological and political theory courses is teachers, and the key is to give full play to teachers' enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity
The third issue: Promote the reform and innovation of ideological and political theory courses, and continuously enhance the ideological, theoretical, affinity and pertinence of ideological and political courses.
The fourth issue: Strengthen the party's leadership in the construction of ideological and political theory courses.
Together they reveal the structural importance of education, the focus of its content, as well as the key challenges that have yet to be overcome. Let us consider each in turn.
5. The first issue: Ideological and political theory courses are of great significance. Xi is at great pains to flesh out the pedigree of ideological education from before the establishment of the People’s Republic. Perhaps more importantly, he takes the trouble to connect it to the period of “Reform and Opening Up.” The object remains the same, to preserve “national ideological security.” That is the essence of the Leninist conception of education as the expression of the vanguard’s working objective with respect to the masses—to educate the masses is to comply with the core requirement of the mass line and the vanguard’s role in shaping society and guiding it toward its ultimate goal. The contemporary problem is one of focus and quality. The Core Socialist Values are re-emphasized, as is the privileged role of moral education expressed through these socialist values.
For Westerners, the emphasis on including political-moral education in the curriculum of schools with a foreign element is not left in doubt. “The construction of ideological and political courses in private schools and Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools is still relatively weak; the synergy between various courses and the construction of ideological and political courses needs to be enhanced, teachers’ awareness and ability of teaching and educating people need to be improved, and schools, families, and society have coordinated to promote thinking.” One will expect that future efforts will be directed toward the inclusion of more robust Marxist and Leninist education in such institutions, and a greater sensitivity to the way that the values and approaches of liberal democratic orders are presented. This will be a shock to those great foreign institutions that have thought themselves the vanguard of the values they brought over with them.
Lastly, Xi urges greater confidence in the development of Marxist Leninism as both ideology and as the basis for the operation of the Chinese state. He suggests that this confidence is a function of the construction of educational approaches that might better help students grasp the self-reflexive and complete systemic qualities of New Era Marxist Leninism. Yet it is the very failure of the leadership to produce a coherent version of that systemic quality, and its character, that lies at the heart of the problem. No faculty member ought to dare to substitute her own sense of that systemicity, and is likely to stay silent in the absence of a strong indication from the center of both a pedagogy and a content for the teaching and description of the systemic character of New Era Marxist Leninism. Is that possible to achieve—yes of course (whether or not one agrees). Even a foreigner might eb able to d that (e.g. here). And yet what is required—given the Leninist nature of the system, is an authoritative pronouncement from the core of leadership—and certainly far more than what is offered in this speech. That has yet to be undertaken. And of course, even if completed, the hard work of aligning CPC practice with the authenticated expression of theory (beyond the condensed form of it in the Preamble to the Chinese Communist Party Constitution) has yet to be either internalized or used effectively in criticism-self-criticism (accountability) exercises at the level of theory. That is a pity.
6. The second issue: The key to running ideological and political theory courses is teachers, and the key is to give full play to teachers' enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity. Pedagogy and teacher training lies at the heart of the challenge of education. That is clearly described by Xi. But implied as well is the challenge of meeting the issue of teacher qualification where the fear of error in a theoretically dynamic context may impede the process of training itself. It is here that Xi offers some comfort. But it might have been useful here to reaffirm Deng Xiaoping’s discussion of the difference between small and large error, the former an object of correction, the latter the object of rectification ("Emancipate the Mind, Seek Truth From Facts and Unite as One in Looking to the Future," Dec. 12, 1978 (“As it is only natural that some opinions expressed by the masses should be correct and others not, we should examine them analytically. The Party leadership should be good at synthesizing the correct opinions and explaining why the others are incorrect. . . No leading comrades at any level must ever place themselves in opposition to the masses. We must never abandon this principle. But of course we must not let down our guard against the handful of counter-revolutionaries who still exist in our country.” )). Xi approaches this challenge from six points. First he speaks to the need for teachers to have a strong faith in the politics and ideology they teach. Second he stresses that this belief must be deep in the sense that a demonstrated passionate faith. Third, the method of instruction must be new in both the sense of pedagogy and in its engagement with the current CPC line. The door is opened, carefully, for comparative study, but always for the purpose of evidencing the position and approach of Chinese Marxist Leninism. Fourth he speaks to vision. Again, the door is open, carefully, to theoretical knowledge of philosophy and the social sciences beyond the four corners of Marxist Leninism, but for the purpose of ensuring a correct conclusion—“ They should not be closed and conservative, nor wooing foreigners. They should guide students to fully and objectively understand contemporary China and the outside world, and be good at discerning right from wrong in critical discrimination.” And yet without proper guidance teachers of good faith might see in this a trap best avoided entirely. Fifth, Xi speaks to self discipline. Teaching, in this sense, is a comprehensive calling that must be lived both within and outside the classroom—and to that end likely to be disciplined by a social credit system developed specifically to make that happen. This is explored more closely in the consideration of Xi’s fourth issue (“It is necessary to reform the evaluation mechanism of ideological and political teachers, increase the proportion of teaching and teaching research in the evaluation, overcome the shortcomings of only diplomas, papers, and hats, and guide ideological and political teachers to focus on teaching and educating people.”). Lastly, Xi speaks to the need to stress the positive elements of theory, ideology and politics.
7. The third issue: Promote the reform and innovation of ideological and political theory courses, and continuously enhance the ideological, theoretical, affinity and pertinence of ideological and political courses. Xi offers here the ideal of ideology and politics wrapped within the reform and innovation that “are the spirit of the times.” Yet democratic centralism might inspire a certain caution by teachers to ensure that such innovation be carried out in the appropriate venue—and it is unlikely that the appropriate venue for ideological innovation is the classroom. Of course, it becomes clear that the reform and innovation is to focus on methodology and pedagogy—not content. It is to that end that Xi offers suggestions for approaching the pedagogy of ideological and political classes. The object is to make the absorption of materials more effective but in a way that centers the key premises of knowledge production within Leninist theory. That requires a focus on what Xi calls the eight unities: (1) the unity of political and academic rationality;” (2) “the unity of values and knowledge;”; (3) “the unity of constructive and critical;” (4) “the unity of theory and practice;” (5) “the unity of convergence and diversity;”; (6) “the unity of dominance and subordination;” (7) “the unity of indoctrination and inspiration;”; and (8) “the unity of explicit and implicit education.” These are likely the most profoundly important element of this essay—it lays out in concrete form the contradictions and tensions, the resolution or balancing of which, produce the structure of Leninist political organization. It serves as the Leninist framework for balancing values that permit a dynamic ability to confront and overcome challenges without imploding the system. But, like its counterpart ideology within liberal democratic states (the balancing of equities, constitutional balancing, margins of appreciation and the like), it creates the danger of error and of abuse.
8. The fourth issue: Strengthen the party's leadership in the construction of ideological and political theory courses. Xi does offer a way out of the contradictions natural to the Leninist ordering—at least a way out for teachers of ideological and political courses. That way out lies in reliance on and working within the parameters of the leadership and guidance of the vanguard. Again, there is a replication in the relationship between teachers and the Party that mimics that between the state apparatus and the Party. Teachers serve as the administrative manifestation of Party thought. They serve as the application and expression of Party guidance, translating its objectives and instructions into concrete action. That is the inherent expression of Leninism within the construction of education itself. As Xi notes: “Teachers are the key to running ideological and political courses.” They serve not just the courses, but are important productive forces within the construction of ideologically and pragmatically coherent programs of instruction from the earliest level f education through to the highest level of post secondary education. Coherence and systemic marks not just the scientism of Marxist Leninism, but its expression as education. And for this work, it is the core leadership of the Party that bears the greatest responsibility.
2020-08-31 15:38 来源： 《求是》杂志
【字体：大 中 小】打印
Xi Jinping: Ideological and political courses are the key courses to implement the fundamental task of Building a Morals Based Character (lì dé shù rén)
2020-08-31 15:38 Source: "Seeking Truth" Magazine
【Font: Big Middle Small】Print
Ideological and political course is a key course to implement the fundamental task of building morals based character (lì dé shù rénLide Shuren) ※
Today, we are here to hold a forum for teachers of ideological and political theory courses in schools. The main participants in the meeting were frontline teachers of ideological and political courses in universities, middle schools and primary schools. First of all, I would like to extend my sincere greetings to all the teachers present here, and to the teachers of ideological and political courses in universities across the country!
The ancients said: “Respect for education and persuasive learning is the foundation of building a nation; the development of talents and talents is the first priority of government.” Education is an important cornerstone of national rejuvenation and social progress. It is of decisive significance to integrate quality, promote the all-round development of people, enhance the creative vitality of the Chinese nation, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Teenagers are the future of the motherland and the hope of the nation. At present, the number of students enrolled in all levels of academic education in my country has reached 270 million, and the total enrollment of various types of higher education in the country has reached 37.79 million. The adolescent stage is the "joint booting stage" of life. During this period, the mind gradually becomes sound and the thinking enters the most active state, which requires meticulous guidance and cultivation. "Being nourished and righteous is also holy." That is to say, the most important thing in youth education is to teach them the right thinking and guide them to take the right path. The ideological and political course is a key course to implement the fundamental task of "lide shunren" to cultivate people. The role of the ideological and political course is irreplaceable, and the ideological and political course teacher team has a great responsibility.
Next, I would like to comment on a few issues and communicate with you.
The first issue: Ideological and political theory courses are of great significance.
Our party has always attached great importance to the construction of ideological and political courses. In the historical periods of revolution, construction, and reform, our party has made important arrangements for the construction of ideological and political courses. During the New Democratic Revolution, our party opened "Party Building", "History of Chinese Revolutionary Movement", "Marxism-Leninism", "dialectical materialism", For courses such as "scientific socialism", "Social Work" courses are offered in Lenin Primary Schools, and "Political Common Sense" courses are offered in primary schools in the liberated areas and middle schools in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia border area. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, our party included "Chinese Revolutionary Common Knowledge" and "Common Program" in the middle school teaching plan, and offered "Chinese Revolution History", "Marxist-Leninist Foundation", "Political Economics", and "Dialectical Materialism" in colleges and universities. Courses such as "and historical materialism" emphasize that the task of political theory courses in middle and high schools is to arm young people with Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, and train strong revolutionary successors. When I was in middle school, the political textbook I studied was called "Being the Successor of the Revolution." It said "Love production and labor, work hard, build a prosperous and strong socialist motherland with my own hands", "make ambitious and be a revolutionary Successors, etc., have affected the ideals, beliefs and life choices of our generation. Since the reform and opening up, the Party Central Committee has successively issued more than 10 documents on ideological and political work in schools, putting forward clear requirements for the construction of ideological and political courses, and continuously promoting the reform of ideological and political courses.
On March 18, 2019, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission hosted a seminar for teachers of the school's ideological and political theory in Beijing and delivered an important speech. Xinhua News Agency issued Sheng Jiapeng/Photo
I am very concerned about running ideological and political classes. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee has successively held the National Conference on Ideological and Political Work in Colleges and Universities and the National Education Conference. I have spoken many times on the construction of ideological and political courses. I have emphasized the most on education in this aspect, and I have also emphasized other aspects of education, but I must emphasize more on the construction of ideological and political courses. Regarding the construction of teaching materials for the three subjects of morality and the rule of law, Chinese, and history in the compulsory education stage, I propose to do a good job from the perspective of safeguarding national ideological security and cultivating socialist builders and successors. We need to figure out what our goal of training people is, and now we are very clear and firm in proposing to train socialist builders and successors. In 2014, during my inspection in Shanghai, I said that cultivating and practicing the core values of socialism must work hard to implement them, especially young people and other key groups. During the inspection of the ethnic primary school in Haidian District, Beijing, The school should put moral education in a more important position, and strive to not only spread knowledge, but also impart virtues in every class, so that the seeds of core socialist values can take root in the hearts of students. In 2016, when I visited Bayi School in Beijing, I emphasized that basic education is a career that fosters morality. It is necessary to strengthen ideological and political education, moral education, strengthen education of socialist core values, and guide students to self-esteem, self-confidence, and become self-reliant. At the National Conference on Ideological and Political Work in Colleges and Universities, I emphasized that the ideological and political theory courses should be strengthened in improvement and improved in innovation, updated teaching content in a timely manner, enriched teaching methods, and continuously improved classroom teaching conditions to prevent formalization and superficiality, etc. . On the eve of May 4th in 2018, I visited the School of Marxism at Peking University. At the beginning of this year, when I went to Nankai University, I also emphasized the construction of ideological and political courses.
On September 10, 2019, party and state leaders Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Wang Huning and others met at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing to celebrate the 2019 Teacher's Day and the National Education System Advanced Collective and Advanced Individual Commendation Conference. Xinhua News Agency reporter Shen Hong/photo
Under the current situation, a good ideological and political course must be viewed in the context of major changes in the world unseen in a century, and the overall development of the party and the country. It is necessary to maintain and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, build a modern socialist country, and realize the Chinese nation. To the height of the great revival. We are working hard to achieve the "two centenary" goals. In the next 30 years, the people we train must be able to accomplish the great cause of the "two centuries". This is the historical responsibility of education. Our party is determined to make great achievements for the Chinese nation and must cultivate useful talents who support the leadership of the Communist Party of China and my country's socialist system from generation to generation, and are determined to fight for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics for life. This requires us to educate and train the next generation well, starting from school and from infancy. It is very necessary to set up ideological and political courses in universities, middle schools and primary schools in a gradual and spiral manner. It is an important guarantee for cultivating generations of socialist builders and successors. Human growth, maturity, and success are not achieved overnight, but a gradual process, just like the physical development of human beings, so these stages must be laid out.
"You must first resolve to learn. If you have established aspirations, you can focus on learning first. If you are determined to be uncertain, you will not help." To become a socialist builder and successor, you must establish a correct world view, outlook on life, and values, and realize personal values. The future and destiny of the party and the country are closely linked. As our country expands and opens up and moves closer to the center of the world stage, our country's ties with the world have become closer and mutual influence has become more profound, and the situation and struggles facing the ideological field have become more complex. The school is the forefront of ideological work, not a tower of ivory, nor a peach blossom garden. To run ideological and political courses well, it is necessary to carry out Marxist theory education, to use the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics to educate people, and to guide students to strengthen their confidence in the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, theoretical confidence, institutional confidence, and cultural confidence, and cultivate patriotism. Feelings, consciously integrate patriotism, national aspirations, and serving the country into the struggle to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, build a modern and powerful socialist country, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
In recent years, the construction of ideological and political courses has achieved remarkable results. Teaching methods have continued to innovate. Teachers are willing to teach and teach with great concentration. The scale and quality of teachers have been steadily improved. At the same time, we must also see that some problems in the construction of ideological and political courses need to be solved urgently. Some places and schools are not fully aware of the importance of ideological and political courses; classroom teaching effects need to be improved, teaching research needs to be increased, and ideas need to be expanded; textbooks are not fresh enough, targeted, readable, and effective Needs to be strengthened; there are still shortcomings in the selection and training of teachers, the team structure needs to be optimized, and the overall quality needs to be improved; the institutional mechanism needs to be improved, the evaluation and support system needs to be improved, and the integrated construction of ideological and political courses in universities, middle schools and primary schools needs to be deepened ; The construction of ideological and political courses in private schools and Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools is still relatively weak; the synergy between various courses and the construction of ideological and political courses needs to be enhanced, teachers’ awareness and ability of teaching and educating people need to be improved, and schools, families, and society have coordinated to promote thinking. The joint force of the construction of political courses has not been fully formed, and the atmosphere of the whole party and the whole society is not strong enough to support the construction of ideological and political courses.
There are many problems that need to be solved in running ideological and political courses, but the most important thing is to solve the problem of confidence. "If you want to be suspicious, you must be confident first." Ideological and political teachers themselves don't believe it, how can they teach students? We should have confidence in running ideological and political courses. The Party Central Committee attaches great importance to education, ideological and political work, and ideological work. It always adheres to the guiding position of Marxism and vigorously promotes the construction of the socialist discipline system with Chinese characteristics, which provides a fundamental guarantee for the construction of ideological and political courses. We have continuously deepened our understanding and grasp of the laws of the Communist Party’s governance, the laws of socialist construction, and the laws of the development of human society, opening up a new realm for the development of theories and practices of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has achieved world-renowned achievements, which are the construction of ideological and political courses. Provide strong support. The theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a system, and the thought of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era was historically put forward by the Communist Party of China at this stage of development. In addition, the Chinese nation has formed a broad and profound and excellent traditional culture for thousands of years. The revolutionary culture and advanced socialist culture that our party has led the people to forge in the process of revolution, construction, and reform have provided profound strength for the construction of ideological and political courses. We have formed a theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics through keeping upright and innovating. Keep uprightness cannot deviate from Marxism and socialism. However, we must advance and advance with the times, otherwise it will be rigid, obsolete, and outdated. A series of regular understandings and successful experiences formed in the construction of ideological and political courses for a long time provide an important foundation for the construction of ideological and political courses. With these foundations and conditions, with our credible, respectable, reliable, willing, courageous, and promising team of ideological and political teachers, we are fully confident and capable of doing more and more ideological and political courses. it is good.
The most fundamental thing in running ideological and political courses is to fully implement the party's educational policy and solve the fundamental problem of who to train, how to train, and for whom. To implement the party's educational policy in the new era, we must adhere to the guiding position of Marxism, implement the socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era, adhere to the direction of socialist education, implement the fundamental task of cultivating morality and fostering people, and insist on education to serve the people and the Communist Party of China to govern the country. Government services, to consolidate and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, to serve reform and opening up, and socialist modernization, take root in China to run education, integrate with productive labor and social practice, accelerate the modernization of education, build a strong education country, and run it well Education that satisfies the people, strives to cultivate newcomers of the era who are responsible for national rejuvenation, and cultivates socialist builders and successors with comprehensive development of moral, intellectual, physical, and artistic.
The second issue: The key to running ideological and political theory courses is teachers, and the key is to give full play to teachers' enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity
It is not easy to teach ideological and political courses, because this course is demanding. When I was working in Zhejiang, I taught ideological and political courses to college students. At that time, I asked all the members of the Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee to teach at a university, and they all contacted a university, so I contacted Zhejiang University. I also talked about it when I was working in Fujian. The teaching of ideological and political courses involves Marxist philosophy, political economy, scientific socialism, economic, political, cultural, social, ecological civilization and party building, reform, development and stability, internal affairs, foreign affairs and national defense, governance of the party, country and military, and party History, national history, reform and opening-up history, and socialist development history involve world history, international communist movement history, world conditions, national conditions, party conditions, people’s conditions, etc. This particularity has high requirements on the comprehensive quality of teachers. The situation at home and abroad and the tasks of the party and the country have developed rapidly. The teaching content of ideological and political courses must keep up with the times. Only by continuous preparation of lessons and regular lectures can we achieve better teaching results. In ideological and political classes, students will ask some sharp and sensitive questions, which often involve deep-level theoretical and practical issues. It is not easy to explain these issues clearly and thoroughly. Our country is a growing country. The socialist system has been perfected through continuous exploration. Now, socialism with Chinese characteristics has been established. At the same time, 70 years after the founding of New China and more than 90 years after the founding of our party, we have been advancing in constant exploration. After ups and downs, we have also taken some detours and situations like the "decade of catastrophe" have occurred. The understanding of this issue must be grasped. As sung in the "Internationale", our party is not a fairy emperor. There will definitely be mistakes in moving forward. Don't lose faith in the party because of these mistakes. The firmness of the ideals and beliefs upheld.
From July 15 to 16, 2019, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission visited Inner Mongolia and guided the development of the theme education of "Don't forget your original heart and remember your mission." It was the morning of the 16th. Xi Jinping had a cordial conversation with the students in the library of Inner Mongolia University, encouraging them to stay high, keep their feet on the ground, and work hard. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xie Huanchi/photo
"Teachers are easy to find, and teachers are rare." Teachers carry the important task of the times of spreading knowledge, spreading ideas, spreading truth, shaping souls, shaping lives, and shaping newcomers. Ideological and political teachers should plant the seeds of truth, goodness and beauty in the hearts of students, and guide them to buckle the first button in their lives. I said at the National Conference on Ideological and Political Work in Colleges and Universities, "Teaching ideological and political theory classes should be taught by teachers with firm beliefs, knowledgeable, and profound theoretical foundations, so that students can truly love and benefit for life." Today, I want to talk more about the quality of teachers in ideological and political courses.
From October 22 to 25, 2018, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission visited Guangdong. This is the afternoon of October 24, when Xi Jinping was visiting Jinan University in Guangzhou to communicate with some compatriots from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and overseas Chinese students. Xinhua News Agency reporter Ju Peng/photo
First, politics must be strong. Ideological and political courses should solve the problem of students' ideals and beliefs. Let people of faith speak faith. Belief in Marxism, and belief in socialism and communism can only take root in the hearts of ideological and political teachers before it can blossom and bear fruit in the hearts of students. Ideological and political teachers must have a firm belief in their own beliefs, a high degree of identification with the content they are speaking, and be a model of learning and practicing Marxism, can they speak with confidence, speak in depth, and effectively guide students to learn, understand, believe and use . We must be good at looking at problems politically, consciously arm our minds with socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era, and maintain political sobriety in the face of big right and wrong. Teachers resolve doubts and doubts themselves, and what they say will not be sufficiently firm and contagious.
Second, the feelings must be deep. Ideological and political courses should guide students to be moral and determined to become talents. Only when students are impressed can they be guided. The feelings that teachers show in the classroom can move people the most, and even affect students' lives. Only true faith can have true affection, and true affection can infect people. Why I am so passionate about Jiao Yulu is because when I was in the first grade of junior high school, when I promoted Jiao Yulu’s deeds, my political teacher choked up several times when he was telling Jiao Yulu’s deeds. For a time, he couldn’t talk about it any more, so he covered his eyes and sobbed. Especially when it was mentioned that Jiao Yulu broke the wicker chair when he had the most serious liver cancer, I was shocked by it. Teachers of ideological and political courses must have the feelings of family and country, have the country and nation in their hearts, and pay attention to the times and society in the great practice of the party and the people, absorb nutrients and enrich their ideas. You must have a sense of preaching, have a real sense of the education of Marxist theory, and have a persistent pursuit of ideological and political education and teaching. There must be benevolent love, and the love for the country, the love for education, and the love for the students should be integrated, and the students should always be in the heart, so that the ideological and political course becomes a warm class.
Third, the thinking must be new. Ideological and political courses should teach students scientific thinking. Ideological and political teachers should not only give students some abstract concepts, but should observe and understand the positions, viewpoints and methods of the contemporary world and contemporary China. Ideological and political teaching is a very creative work. It is necessary to learn dialectical materialism and historical materialism, be good at using innovative thinking, dialectical thinking, and be good at using contradictory analysis methods to grasp the key, find the key points, clarify the law, and innovate classroom teaching , Give students a profound learning experience. In teaching, problems can be discussed, and achievements should be made clear; bad social phenomena can be criticized, and students should be guided to think positively; the complexity and arduousness of socialist construction can be talked about, and students should be more confident in the prospect of socialism. No matter how you say it, it will ultimately fall to guiding students to establish correct ideals and beliefs and learn correct thinking methods.
Fourth, have a broad vision. Teachers of ideological and political courses must have a vision of knowledge. In addition to having Marxist theoretical knowledge, they must also extensively study knowledge of other philosophy, social sciences and natural sciences. Have a broad international perspective. Students often associate foreign affairs with domestic situations, and this process will cause some doubts. Students’ doubts are the focus of ideological and political courses. We must be good at making use of domestic and foreign facts, cases, and materials to answer students’ doubts in comparison. They should not be closed and conservative, nor wooing foreigners. They should guide students to fully and objectively understand contemporary China and the outside world, and be good at discerning right from wrong in critical discrimination. There is also a historical perspective. History is the best teacher. In the historical vision of ideological and political teachers, there must be more than 5000 years of Chinese civilization history, more than 500 years of world socialism history, more than 170 years of struggle history of the Chinese people since modern times, and nearly 100 years of struggle history of the Chinese Communist Party. The 70-year history of the development of the People’s Republic of China must have a history of more than 40 years of practice in reform and opening up, as well as the historic achievements and historic changes that have taken place in socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Through vivid, in-depth, and concrete comparisons Some truths are explained clearly and clearly.
Fifth, strict self-discipline. Teachers of ideological and political courses must be strict with themselves. They must abide by teaching discipline, political discipline and political rules. They must be consistent in class and offline, online and offline, and they cannot speak well in class but chaos after class. Speaking, you can’t behave well in real life but talk nonsense on the Internet. Teachers of ideological and political courses have the dominant and discourse power in the classroom, and must consciously promote the main theme and actively convey positive energy. Observing discipline does not mean that you cannot talk about contradictions or encounter problems. Some teachers are worried about the ideological attributes of ideological and political courses, and they are worried that disaster will come out of their mouths. They always talk about problems and avoid difficulties. As long as we adhere to the correct political direction, based on guiding students to strengthen their ideals and beliefs, and look at problems from a comprehensive perspective, there is no need to worry about political problems. Give teachers full trust, don't grab braids, don't buckle hats, or hit sticks.
Sixth, the personality must be positive. People are attractive. Only with his own teacher can he believe in his way. Teachers of ideological and political courses must have upright personalities, and use noble personalities to infect and win students. You must have the charm of learning, use the power of truth to inspire students, and win students with a profound theoretical foundation. Thoughts must have realm, and language must be attractive. From the teacher's words, students can feel the teacher's personality and knowledge. It is necessary to consciously cultivate one's self-cultivation, like Zeng Zi's "three times to consider my body", like Wang Yangming's "sincerity and integrity", "knowledge and action", consciously set an example of learning to be a person, and be a person loved by students.
The third issue: Promote the reform and innovation of ideological and political theory courses, and continuously enhance the ideological, theoretical, affinity and pertinence of ideological and political courses
Reform and innovation are the spirit of the times, and young people are the most active group. The construction of ideological and political courses must be vigorous from reform and innovation. If you are a monk for a day and hit the clock for a day, follow the script and deal with errands, then the "attendance rate" and "head-up rate" will be greatly reduced. Many schools actively adopt case-based teaching, inquiry-based teaching, experience-based teaching, interactive teaching, topic-based teaching, and focus-based teaching in ideological and political courses, and use modern information technology to build smart classrooms, which have achieved positive results. These are worthy of recognition and encouragement. To promote the reform and innovation of ideological and political courses, we must achieve the following "unification".
First, adhere to the unity of political and academic rationality. Political guidance is the basic function of ideological and political courses. Emphasizing the political guidance function of ideological and political courses is not to make the class a simple political propaganda, but to respond to students with thorough theoretical analysis, to persuade students with thorough ideological theory, and to guide students with the powerful force of truth. Marx said: "As long as the theory is thorough, it can convince people." Marxist theory is a thorough theory. The theories, viewpoints, and conclusions taught by ideological and political teachers must be able to withstand various "why" questions from students, so that the effect can be good. It should be noted that academic rationality cannot be used to weaken the political nature. In different stages of colleges, middle and elementary schools, whether it is through storytelling, history or theory to teach ideological and political courses, it must reflect the political guiding function of ideological and political courses. .
Second, insist on the unity of value and knowledge. Ideological and political courses focus on shaping students' values, which must be firmly grasped. Emphasizing the value of ideological and political courses is not to ignore knowledge, but to strengthen the education of values by satisfying students' thirst for knowledge. Only empty values preaching, without the support of scientific knowledge, the effect of values education will be greatly reduced. Of course, in the teaching of ideological and political courses, we should not only emphasize knowledge, and we should not let students memorize knowledge points in order to cope with exams, and ignore the guidance of students' values. Students can only remember if they are interested. This kind of memory is reliable. If there is no interest in rote memorization, it is dead knowledge. Knowledge is the carrier, and value is the purpose. Values must be guided by knowledge transfer. For example, when teaching Chinese history, we should pay attention to guiding students to inherit national integrity and advocating heroism, guide students to learn heroes, remember heroes, and consciously oppose historical nihilism and cultural nihilism that forget their ancestors and self-defeating ancestors. Encourage responsibility.
Third, insist on the unity of constructive and critical. The task of the ideological and political course is to transmit the mainstream ideology, and constructiveness is its foundation. At the same time, a thorough critical spirit is the essential characteristic of Marxism, and Marxism opens up a path of advancement in the constant struggle against various erroneous trends of thought. Ideological and political courses must use critical weapons on the basis of spreading Marxist positions, viewpoints, and methods, face various erroneous views and trends of thought, and analyze and criticize with a clear-cut stand. There will be various problems in any society at any time. It is necessary to educate and guide students to correctly view, dialectically understand, and rationally analyze real problems, distinguish the big right and wrong, the truth from the black and the black, and promote the truth, the good and the beauty in the criticism of the false, evil and ugly phenomena in society. It is necessary to adhere to the problem orientation. The problems that students are concerned about and doubts are actually divided into several categories. These problems must be broken up and crushed, in-depth study and solutions, and the facts and truths should be explained clearly. In fact, sometimes it is not necessary to speak so comprehensively. Starting from a problem, discussing a problem in depth, and finally by analogy, it can lead to many related problems. It may be a comprehensive guide, outline and guide. To practice the true skills of not being afraid of asking, being afraid of not asking, and being happy when you ask, you will be frustrated if you can't see students asking questions. Truth has always been developed through cross-examination and debate. If you fail to ask, it means that what you are saying is not the truth or you have not grasped the truth.
Fourth, adhere to the unity of theory and practice. Ideological and political courses should use scientific theories to train people, follow the cognitive laws of students in different stages, and explain the basic principles of Marxism clearly and thoroughly. At the same time, Marxism is formed and continuously developed in practice. We must attach great importance to the practicality of ideological and political courses, and combine ideological and political classrooms with large social classrooms. In the combination of theory and practice, education and guidance of students to life ambitions Implement it in down-to-earth practical actions, combine the specific goals of learning and struggle with the great goal of national rejuvenation, and establish aspirations to struggle to knowledge.
Fifth, insist on the unity of convergence and diversity. Ideological and political courses have unified requirements in terms of teaching objectives, curriculum settings, use of teaching materials, and teaching management. However, the specific implementation should be adapted to local conditions, time conditions, and aptitude. The unified requirements are implemented in accordance with the actual situation, and the exploration of different methods and paths is encouraged. Teachers of ideological and political courses should use the unified teaching materials as the basis to ensure the standardization, scientificity, and authority of teaching. At the same time, they cannot simply follow the text. The textbooks give the basic conclusions and brief expositions of teaching. To make students of different types love to listen and learn, understand and learn, a lot of creative work needs to be done. It is necessary to carry out diversified explorations in the teaching process and achieve the teaching goals through a variety of methods.
On the morning of May 30, 2014, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission came to the Ethnic Primary School in Haidian District, Beijing to participate in the celebration of "June 1" International Children's Day. This is Xi Jinping's participation in the joining ceremony of the Young Pioneers. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Tao/photo
Sixth, insist on the unity of dominance and subordination. The teaching of ideological and political courses is inseparable from the teacher's leadership. At the same time, it is necessary to adhere to the student-centered approach, increase the study of students' cognitive laws and acceptance characteristics, and give full play to the role of students. Some ideological and political classrooms use group research, scene display, topic discussion, classroom debate and other methods to teach students, which is conducive to giving full play to the role of students. Teachers should do the finishing touch, strengthen guidance and summary and refinement. It is necessary to educate and guide students to read more Marxist classics, contemporary Chinese Marxist theoretical works, Chinese excellent traditional cultural classics, etc. It is necessary to draw up a list of books and point out the key points, so that students can correctly understand the classics, master the essence of Marxism, perceive the charm of Chinese culture, avoid dogmatism, book-basedism, and avoid misunderstanding of Marxism.
Seventh, insist on the unity of indoctrination and inspiration. Indoctrination is the basic method of Marxist theoretical education. Lenin said: "It is impossible for workers to have social democratic consciousness. This kind of consciousness can only be instilled from the outside." To allow students to accept Marxism is inseparable from the necessary indoctrination, but this does not mean engaging in "cracking" instill". We must pay attention to heuristic education, guide students to discover, analyze, and think about problems, and allow students to draw conclusions automatically during continuous enlightenment. Here, it is very important to be able to tell stories and tell them well. Ideological and political classes must tell stories about the Chinese nation, the Communist Party of China, the People’s Republic of China, socialism with Chinese characteristics, and reform and opening up, especially Tell the story of the new era. Tell stories, not only the teacher tells, but also organize the students to tell.
Eighth, adhere to the unity of explicit and implicit education. Ideological and political courses should be an explicit course of ideological and political education. Some people propose to turn ideological and political courses into hidden courses and fully integrate them into other humanities courses. This is wrong. When we run an education on socialism with Chinese characteristics, we must be honest and confident in teaching ideological and political courses. At the same time, it is necessary to tap the ideological and political education resources contained in other courses and teaching methods to realize all-round education for all employees. Not only must there be the momentum of the stormy waves hitting the shore, but also the effect of moisturizing things silently, this is the way of education.
All of the above mentioned that only the combination boxing can be taught well in the ideological and political class, but no matter how the combined boxing is played, it will eventually fall to the ideological and political class being more affinity and appealing, more targeted and effective. Coming up to achieve the unity of knowledge, affection, mind, and behavior is convincing.
The fourth issue: Strengthen the party's leadership in the construction of ideological and political theory coursesIt's up to The communist party to do thing well in China. Party committees at all levels must put the construction of ideological and political courses on the important agenda, grasp the outstanding problems that restrict the construction of ideological and political courses, and take effective measures in terms of work pattern, team building, support and guarantee. It is necessary to establish a work pattern of unified leadership of the party committee, joint management of the party and government, relevant departments responsible for their own responsibility, and coordination of the whole society, and promote the formation of the whole party and the society to manage ideological and political courses, teachers earnestly teach ideological and political courses, and students are active A good atmosphere for learning ideological and political courses. The school party committee must insist on combining strict management with scientific governance. The school party committee secretary and principal should take the lead in entering the classroom, take the lead in promoting the construction of ideological and political courses, and take the lead in contacting ideological and political teachers. Now, university opening ceremonies and graduation ceremonies are very active, and school leaders give speeches, which arouses great attention from the society. These speeches are an important manifestation of the direction of running schools and the orientation of educating people. They should clearly reflect the party's educational policy, actively disseminate Marxist scientific theories, and promote socialist core values. However, judging from the actual situation, some speeches have more general moral requirements and less emphasis on ideals and beliefs; more individualized expressions, but less emphasis on the party's educational propositions; more talks about conformity with international standards, and less emphasis on Chinese characteristics. This requires attention. University leaders are educators, but they should be politicians.
Teachers are the key to running ideological and political courses. To mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of teachers of ideological and political courses, it is necessary to enhance teachers' sense of professional identity, sense of honor, and sense of responsibility. It must be clear and clear: teaching ideological and political courses not only has "techniques" but also "learning" and more "dao". The political, ideological, academic, and professional aspects of ideological and political courses are closely linked, and their academic depth, breadth and academic content are no less than any philosophy and social sciences! A team of full-time teachers of ideological and political courses should be equipped to build a team of full-time teachers with a sufficient number and excellent quality. In the selection, management, and assessment of ideological and political teachers, it is necessary to strictly control politics, teacher ethics, and business, and solve the problem of study style. It is necessary to innovate the working mechanism, increase the intensity of training and incentives, implement various policy guarantees, and increase the attractiveness of this post to outstanding talents, so that the creative vitality of ideological and political teachers, especially young teachers, will burst out and the wisdom and talents will flow fully. It is necessary to reform the evaluation mechanism of ideological and political teachers, increase the proportion of teaching and teaching research in the evaluation, overcome the shortcomings of only diplomas, papers, and hats, and guide ideological and political teachers to focus on teaching and educating people. Some schools have verbally praised ideological and political courses, but have not implemented the education, academic, and talent evaluation mechanisms. Some have followed the evaluation systems set up by foreign institutions. Everything is ranked and determined by the publication of papers in foreign journals. Preface, on heroes. Ideological and political courses are unable to publish papers in so-called international journals, and naturally become the object of rejection by the value evaluation system. Even the ideological and political education departments of some schools cannot enter people and evaluate professional titles through normal channels, and some rely on schools. Special care. Over time, in some places, extremely wrong views and atmospheres such as non-academic and non-academic ideological and political majors have formed, which has caused a great psychological shadow on some ideological and political teachers and seriously affected their enthusiasm for work. It is necessary to attach great importance to the training of reserve talents for ideological and political teachers, strengthen the construction of Marxist colleges and Marxist theory, coordinate the promotion of the training of Marxist theory, masters and doctoral integration, and continuously provide high-level talents for ideological and political teachers. The construction of school cadres should take ideological and political teachers as an important source. The education department should come up with practical and feasible guiding opinions.
It is necessary to coordinate the promotion of the integrated construction of ideological and political courses in universities, middle schools and primary schools as an important project, adhere to the combination of problem-oriented and goal-oriented, adhere to the integration of integrity and innovation, and promote the connotative development of the construction of ideological and political courses. Specific teaching goals should be set scientifically according to the laws of ideological and political theory education and the laws of student growth for different levels of education. The design of teaching goals, curriculum design, textbook compilation, teaching reform, teacher training, assessment and evaluation, etc. should be carried out scientifically. , And can't engrave a boat to seek a sword, and be complacent. Curriculum settings should be relatively stable, adhere to the principles of vertical main line penetration and gradual progress in universities, middle schools and primary schools, and the principles of reasonable horizontal structure and complementary functions of various courses to ensure the political, scientific, contemporary, and readable textbooks.
School ideological and political work is not just a one-line work, but should be all-round. It is necessary to improve the curriculum system, solve the problem of coordination between various courses and ideological and political courses, encourage famous teaching teachers to lecture in ideological and political classes, solve the problems that promote the complementarity of other faculty and ideological and political teachers, and promote ideological and political work through talents Cultivation system, play the synergistic effect of integrated, embedded and infiltrating Lide Shuren. The learning effect of ideological and political courses is closely related to the role of parents, family, and family style, and attention should be paid to home-school cooperation. Private schools and Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools should also put the construction of ideological and political courses in an important position, and run ideological and political courses in accordance with the requirements. There are no exceptions in this regard. Responsible comrades in all regions and departments should actively go to schools to teach ideological and political courses. This is a test of the level of Marxism. The ability to teach ideological and political courses well is also a manifestation of the political quality, theoretical level, and work style of a leading cadre.
The Central Education Work Leading Group must include the construction of ideological and political courses on its agenda. The Ministry of Education, the Central Propaganda Department and other departments should take the lead in the construction of ideological and political courses. Relevant departments should strengthen their work together. The construction of ideological and political courses should be included in the assessment of the school’s party building work, the quality of running a school, and the assessment of discipline construction, etc., to urge the school to earnestly grasp this work and grasp it in place.
※This is the main part of General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech at the school's ideological and political theory teacher seminar on March 18, 2019.
[I want to correct] Editor in charge: Zhu Ying